Manuscript Instructions

1. Styling of manuscript
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1.1. Typing style
12 pt standard, line pitch 22 pt, 25 lines per page and about 75 letters per line are preferred.
1.2. Manuscript arrangement
(1) On the first page, the Graphical Abstract should be displayed.
(2) On the second page (cover page), the following should be typed: 1) Title, 2) Authors, 3) Affiliation, 4) English synopsis, 5) blank two lines and 6) Keywords.
(3) From the next page onwards, the contents should be in the following order: 1) Main text, 2) Acknowledgement, 3) List of References, 4) Appendix and 5) List of captions of Tables and Figures. Each part should be typed on separate sheets. Then 6) Tables and Figures should follow, on separate sheets.
1.3. Page numbering
· Page numbering should be made at the bottom center of each sheet from the cover page onwards, in the order: Main text, Acknowledgement, Appendix, List of References, List of captions Tables and Figures, Tables and Figures.
2. Manuscript-making
2.1. Title
(1) The title of the paper should be determined such that it reflects the contents most suitably and concisely.
(2) Abbreviated symbols, if not conventionally used, should be avoided.
(3) Description of element symbols
· When an element name is used as a symbol of material, the use of element symbols should be avoided and the name of the element should be fully spelled out.
· When the element name is used as chemical symbol or adjectively used, the element symbol can be used.
(4) Expressions such as “Study on” or “On the” should be avoided as the start of the title.
(5) Definite articles and indefinite articles are used as less as possible.
(6) The first letter of a word other than prepositions, conjunctions and articles are all capital letters including hyphen-connected words.
2.2. Description of authors
Both the first name and last name should be written out fully. Middle names can be abbreviated.
2.3. Description of affiliations
(1) When authors belong to different research organizations, each organization should be designated by superscript numbers, in the form 1, 2 etc. The name of the department, name of the organization, and the address should be fully written out and should be separated by commas. The postal zip code and country name should also be given.
(2) The name of the research organization should be given under the names of the authors.
(3) When an author's present affiliation is different from the name of the organization, in which the research was performed, it should be expressed as a footnote using an asterisk.
(4) For graduate students and undergraduate students, the affiliation should be expressed as a footnote using an asterisk.
  1. Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, A University, Hitachi 316-0001, Japan
  2. Corporate Research and Development Laboratory, B Co. Ltd., Sendai 980-0001, Japan

(Footnote) *1 Graduate Student, A University
*2 Graduate Student, A University. Present address: Corporate Research and Development Laboratories, B Co. Ltd., Sendai 980-0001, Japan
2.4. English synopsis
Numeral equations and references cannot be designated by numbers.
2.5. Keywords
Except for proper nouns, all letters should be small letters.
(1) It is advisable to select keywords from the title and synopsis, since these contain important words. However, keywords can also be selected from other parts of the manuscript.
(2) Keywords should be selected so as to be concrete meaningful words with as narrow definition as possible.
Critical, Stress →critical stress
Life→tool life, fatigue life
(3) Use of keywords in noun form
Studied experimentally→ experimental study
(4) Name of elements, name of chemicals, name of compounds and so forth should be fully spelled out instead of using the symbol of the element.
CrMo steel→chromium molybdenum steel
E→Young's modulus, modulus of longitudinal elasticity
(5) Simplified symbols and abbreviated forms cannot be used.
(6) Use of compounded words and phrases is restricted to those that are commonly used.
(7) Be careful not to omit popular words.
(8) In the case that the authors have difficulties of whether to select or not, please select them as keywords.
2.6. Heading of body
large size heading: 1. 2. ···
middle size heading: 1.1 2.1···
small size heading: 1.1.1 2.1.1···
(1) (2)···
(a) (b)···
2.7. Tables and figures
Tables and Figures (photographs) are to be provided in one of the following file formats, and are to be submitted together with the manuscript. When the designated files are not available, completed figures are accepted for image processing. (No freehand drawings will be accepted.)
Adobe Illustrator (save as version 10)
PSD (All layers are combined)
EPS (PostScript level 1 compatibility)
PICT (Macintosh)
JPEG (high resolution, low compressed)
GIF (not see-through, assign all colors)
Microsoft Word/ Excel/ PowerPoint
PDF (no down sampling and no compression, All fonts must be embedded)
2.7.1. Tables
(1) Each Table should be made on a separate sheet. Tables are set after the list of captions of Tables and Figures in submission. Tables should be numbered sequentially.
(2) Tables should be sequentially numbered in the following manner: Table 1, Table 2.
(3) The Table caption should be located at the top of the Table, starting with a capital letter and ending with a period.
(4) Headings in the Table should begin with a capital letter.
(5) Size of Table: Same as the publication size.
Half width size figure: 7-8 cm in width, 12 point letter size, subscript 10 point size Full width size figure: 10-13 cm in width, 12 point letter size, subscript 10 point. The lines are of the same dense and their width is of 0.5 pt and up (0.18 mm and up).
The vertical line is not displayed as a general rule.
Table 2    Thermal conductivities of some ceramics.
Thermal conductivity, κ/W・m-1・K-1
69.9(1300 K)
30.0(1773 K)
67.8(1773 K)
64.5(1300 K)
2.7.2. Figures including photographs
(1) General instructions
1) Each Figure should be drawn on each separate sheet.
2) Figures should be sequentially numbered in the following manner: Figure 1, Figure 2. If a figure is divided to several parts, each part should be labeled as follows: (a), (b), (c).
The locations of (a), (b), (c) are either of follows.
3) Figure caption is made under the figure, starting with a capital letter and ending with a period.
4) The original photograph should not be of a once-half-tone type. Clear contrast, and vivid lines and contours are required.
5) For color figures/tables, authors should pay 1,100 yen(1,000 yen without tax) per figure/table.
6) In manuscript, authors should clearly write “color” of “black/white” on each figure/table’s page. If a color figure is printed in black/white, soft colors could become hard to see. Please check wash-out or blurriness before submission.
(2) Drawing instruction
1) Specifies the necessary scale for the photographs.
2) Size of figure: Same as the publication size.
Half width size figure: 7-8 cm in width, 10 point letter size, subscript 8 point size
Full width size figure: 10-13 cm in width, 10 point letter size
3) Letters in the figure should be the same size.
4) Meshing consisting of thin, gray lines or very fine lines, and dense curve lines which may cause moire fringe phenomena, are not recommended.
5) The lines are of the same dense and their width is of 0.5 pt and up (0.18 mm and up).
The framework lines are made not by broken lines but solid lines.
(3) Graphical Abstract
1) In addition to the text abstract, Graphical Abstract (hereafter GA) which represents the contents of your paper best should be displayed. GA will be only on the J-STAGE Online Journal.
2)Authors can select an original figure or a photograph as well as the one used in the paper. GA can contain captions or additional words. Specific file format is as follows:
File type: jpg, gif, or png
File size: up to 100MB
Resolution: 700 pixel x 700 pixel (more than 300 dpi)
Color: as submitted
3) The figure or photograph which will be used as GA should be clearly stated paper’s on submission, indicating as “Graphical Abstract” at the header of the manuscript sheet. Caption should start with “Caption:”.
During review process, the Editorial Committee judges whether a selected GA is appropriate for each paper.
4) The color tone of GA is the same as submitted or as the one displayed in the text body.
5) Words or sentences in the figure will be shown as submitted.
6) Authors proofread GA as well as the text or figures.
7) GA does not need any additional costs including Color Charge.
2.7.3. Expression of physical quantities in Figures and Tables
Expression of the quantity symbol is required.
In the Figures and Tables, physical quantities should be expressed with use of the quantity symbol as shown in the following Figure.
The angle should be expressed as 10°, 20°...
Physical Quantity, Symbol / Unit
(in Roman letter) (in Italic) (in Roman)
Sample of Figure
Sample of Figure
ex) Time, t / s
Temperature, T / K
Current Density, I / A·m-2
Residual Stress, σ / MPa
2.8. Footnotes and References
(1) No footnotes are allowed in the main text. Comments and notes are to be shown in the references.
(2) Oral presentation should not be shown in the footnotes. If it is needed, quote the abstracts or proceedings in REFERENCES.
(3) Citation of references should be made sequentially, in the form 1, 2) or 3-6). List of References should be attached.
(4) One reference number should correspond to one reference. Even if another reference of the same author is cited, allocate a different reference number and do not use the expression, “ibid”.
(5) A reference is described in the order: names of authors (no need of comma before “and”), the abbreviated name of the journal, volume number (year), page. Volume number should be expressed in Gothic type, and the names of books in italics. The abbreviation of journals should follow the ISO standard.
The Abbreviation of Journals
(6) When authors are 15 or less, all of the names should be given, instead of using “et al”.
Example of journal
1) S. R. Pati and M. Cohen: Acta Metall. 17 (1969) 189-200.
2) W. Köster, T. Gödecke and D. Heine: Z. Metallk. 63 (1972) 802-805.
Example of book
3) W. Hume-Rothery, R. E. Smallman and C. W. Haworth: The Structure of Metals and Alloys, (The Metals and Metallurgy Trust of the Institute of Metals and Institution of Metallurgists, London, 1969) pp. 336-342.
4) E. Houdremont: Handbuch der Sonderstahlkunde, 3. Aufl., 2. Bd., (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1956) pp. 934-939.
Example of Proceedings
5) C. Wagner: Steelmaking, The Chipman Conference, ed. by J. F. Elliott, (The M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1965) pp. 19-25.
6) K. Abe and Y. Sato: Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on Rapidly Quenched Metals, ed. by T. Masumoto and K. Suzuki, (The Japan Inst. Metals, 1982) pp.19-25.
Example of footnotes
7) 1eV=1.60218×10−19J
Example of Annual meeting abstract
8) T. Yamada: Collected Abstracts of the 1999 Autumn Meeting of the Japan Inst. Metals(1999)pp. 101-102.
9) Collected Abstracts of the 201x Spring ( Autumn) Meeting of the Japan Inst. Metals 2011 No. xx (DVD)
Example of Government report
10) A. Colloza and J.L. Dolce: NASA/TM2005-213427, (NASA Glenn Research Center 2005), p.22 (online)
Example of Webpage
11) " Application Guide SF424 (R&R)". U.S. Department of Health and Human Services., (accessed 201x-04-28)
Example of Online database
12) MMDB-Entrez's Structure Database. National Library of Medicine, National Center of Biotechnology Information., (cited 201x-04-28).

2.9. Numerical equation
Numerical equations in the main text should be expressed as, for example, x/3, a/(b + c) instead of , .
The exponential symbol should be expressed as “exp”, if possible.
The expression of 4×10-2 is used instead of 4 ·10-2.
2.10. Decimal point and thousand-unit comma
The decimal point for numerals should be put at the lower level of a numeral.
The thousand-unit comma should not be used to prevent confusion with decimal points.
2.11. SI Unit
(1) Usage of SI units should be, on the whole, based on Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS).
SI Units Conversion Table
(2) Among units which are not included in SI units but are permitted for combined usage in JIS, only the following units can be used.
(a) Units which can be used for combined usage because of their practical importance.
Time min, h, d
Plane angle °,',″
Volume L
Mass t
(b) electron volt which can be used with SI units, in certain academic fields.
(However, it should be used only after the expression by J and be shown inside parentheses.)
(c) following units can be used
mass fraction in percentage   mass%
volume fraction, as a percentage   vol%
volume fraction, as a parts per million  vol ppm
NOTE : Celsius is a proper unit for temperature and is a SI unit
2.12. Numerical, Roman and Greek letters used for Tables and numerical equations
(1) Numerical, Roman and Greek letters used in Tables and numerical equations should be typed clearly to prevent misunderstanding. Superscript, subscript, Greek letters, italics, bold letters and so on, should be designated only in the original manuscript used for printing by red ink.(In copies of the manuscript, these letters are not needed, to prevent inconvenience in the reviewing process.
Examples: Greek letters: enclosed by circle
Italic letters: underlined by
Bold italic letters: underlined by
Gothic letters: underlined by
Superscript and subscript of numerical equations 10, Cr
Others: Greek letters similar to Roman letters and capital letters difficult to distinguish from small letters should be specially designated.
(2) Letters representing numeral values (quantity symbols) should be designated regardless of whether they are constants or variables, since they are printed in italic letters. Mathematical symbols are designated by Roman letters. Examples: quantity symbols:
length; l, area; A, S, volume; V, v, pressure; P, force; F, time; t, vector; A, a,
scientific constants; N, k
mathematical symbols exponential function; exp
(when expressed by e, it is printed in italic letters)
natural logarithms; ln x
general logarithms; log x
sine; sin
cosine; cos
tangent; tan
2.13. Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments should be made at the end of the manuscript, leaving an interval of one line after the body of the text. Financial assistance, the use of apparatus and the receipt of research funding and so on, should all be acknowledged in this section.
2.14. Appendix
Tables and Figures and equation numbers in the Appendix, should be numbered separately from the numbering in the main text, by writing: A1, A2, etc.
2.15. Approximation of printed page number
Title, authors, affiliation: about 40 lines in the body
English synopsis: one line in printed form of 16-20 words corresponds to about 40 words in the main text.
The main text: one page in printed form corresponds to about 1000 words or 6000 letters.

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