THE JAPAN INSTITUTE OF METALS
PROCEEDINGS VOLUME 12
(JIMIC-3)

Solid-Solid
Phase
Transformations


Edited by
M.Koiwa
K. Otsuka
T. Miyazaki

Copyright (c) 1999, The Japan Institute of Metals
All right reserved
Published by The Japan Institute of Metals
Aramaki Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-0845, Japan
Tel: +81-22-223-3685, Fax: +81-22-223-6312


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Pt. I


Preface M. Koiwa

I. Keynote Lectures

Challenges of Paradigm Building for Solid-State Transformations
. . . . . . . . .J. W. Cahn 3
A New Evaluation Method of Phase Decomposition by Utilizing the Macroscopic Composition Gradient in Alloys
. . . . . . . . .T. Miyazaki 15

II. Diffusional Transformations

2.1. Order-Disorder Transformations
*The Measurement and Prediction of Order
. . . . . . . . .I. P. Jones, N. Jiang, J. N. Pratt, R. E. Smallman, D. H. Hou, H. L. Fraser, P. Shang, G. Yang and J. S. Abell 25
Ordering and Ordered Structures in the β Phase of Ag-Zn-Al Alloys
. . . . . . . . .K. Takezawa, H. Hoshi and K. Marukawa 33
Order and Disorder in Ag-Rich Ag-Al Single Crystals
. . . . . . . . .S.-Y. Yu, B. Schonfeld and G. Kostorz 37
In Situ Metallography of Order-Disorder Transformation in CuAu
. . . . . . . . .V. Sima, P. Masek, F. Chmel´ik, A. Brinck,
H. Neuhauser, B. Sprusil and W. Pfeiler
41
X-ray Study of the Order-Disorder Transition in Alloys with Long Period
. . . . . . . . .S. V. Starenchenko and E. V. Kozlov 45
In-Situ TEM Observation of Long Range Ordering and Disordering Process via Short Range Order in Cu-Al
. . . . . . . . .M. Hama, N. Chiwata, N. Kuwano and K. Oki 49
B2-Ordered Intermetallic FeAl: Changes in the Degree of LRO
. . . . . . . . .K. Rohrhofer, H. Lang, W. P"uschl and W. Pfeiler 53

2.2. Phase Separation and Ordering

Transmission Electron Microscope Study of the Non-Equilibrium α -γ Phase Transformations in Ti-Al Intermetallic Alloys
. . . . . . . . .E. Abe, K. Niinobe, T. Kumagai, M. Nakamura and T. Tsujimoto 57
A New Concept of the A2/B2 Phase Transformations Based upon Recent Experimental Investigations
. . . . . . . . .A. M. Mebed, T. Koyama and T. Miyazaki 61
*Ordering and Phase Separation in Model Superalloys: 3D Atom Probe versus Monte Carlo Simulation
. . . . . . . . .D. Blavette, F. Soisson, G. Martin and C. Pareige 65
Atom Probe Studies of Phase Transformations in Nickel-Based Superalloys
. . . . . . . . .M. K. Miller 73
Analysis of the Evolution of Domain Structures by Multi-Dimensional Order Parameters
. . . . . . . . .R. Oguma and T. G. Eguchi 77
Giant Magnetoresistance and Spinodal Decomposition in Co-Cu Ribbons
. . . . . . . . .I.-J. Kim, J. Echigoya and K. Fukamichi 81
Comparison of SRO-Kinetics in Deformed and Recrystallized State
. . . . . . . . .M. Spanl, P. Rosenkranz, W. Puschl and W. Pfeiler 85
A Mathematical Model of Heterogeneous Reaction
. . . . . . . . .K. Holly, M. Danielewski and B. Bozek 89
Self-Assembly in Mixtures of Dibolck Copolymer and Homopolymer
. . . . . . . . .M. Takenaka, N. Iizuka, H. Hasegawa and T. Hashimoto 93

2.3. Phase Decomposition

*Clustering and Segregation of Mg and Ag Atoms during the Precipitation Processes in Al(-Li)-Cu-Mg-Ag Alloys
. . . . . . . . .K. Hono, M. Murayama and L. Reich 97
*Coherency Strain in Two Dimensions; Effects on Phase Equilibria, Diffusion and Phase Transformations in Multicomponent Systems
. . . . . . . . .G. R. Purdy, A. E. Holm and Y. Wang 105
Decomposition Behaviour of γMn Phase in MnCu and MnCuNiFe Alloys during Aging within the Miscibility Gap
. . . . . . . . .F. Yin, Y. Ohsawa, A. Sato and K. Kawahara 113
Kinetics of Spinodal Decomposition with Composition Dependent Mobility
. . . . . . . . .T. Ujihara and K. Osamura 117
Kinetics of Nucleation-Growth Processes: The First Stages
. . . . . . . . .J. W. P. Schmelzer and V. V. Slezov 121
Evaluation of Phase Decomposition and Precipitation in an Al-Mg2Si Alloy by Quantitative Measurement of Dislocation-Defect Interactions
. . . . . . . . .B. J. Diak and S. Saimoto 125
Morphology and Crystallography of Triple Point Nucleated Precipitate in Two Phase Alloys
. . . . . . . . .H. Fujiwara, T. Maeda and K. Ameyama 129
Far from Equilibrium Primary Crystallization Kinetics for Nano-Structural Development
. . . . . . . . .N. Clavaguera and M. T. Clavaguera-Mora 133
Phase Decomposition in Al-Ag Alloys under Deformation
. . . . . . . . .H. Okuda, H. Suzuki, H. Hiramatsu, K. Ito, K. Osamura and Y. Amemiya 137
Characterization of γ Plate-Shaped Precipitates during Early Stages of Growth in an Al-4.2 at.%Ag Alloy: Solute Field, Composition and Growth Kinetics
. . . . . . . . .K. T. Moore and J. M. Howe 141
The Modelling of the Heterogeneous Precipitation in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloys during Quenching
. . . . . . . . .D. Godard, E. Gautier, P. Archambault and C. Sigli 145
Kinetics of the α →γ Transformation in Ti-(46-48)at.%Al Alloys
. . . . . . . . .D. Veeraraghavan, P. Wang, U. Pilchowski and V. K. Vasudevan 149
Decomposition of α -phase into Massive and Widmanstatten Structures in a Ti-48 at. % Al Alloy
. . . . . . . . .K. Nakai and Y. Ohmori 153
The Role of Microalloying Elements in the Formation of Precipitate Plates in Aluminium Alloys
. . . . . . . . .J. F. Nie, H. I. Aaronson and B. C. Muddle 157
Role of Microalloying Elements in Phase Decomposition of Al Based Alloys
. . . . . . . . .T. Sato, S. Hirosawa and A. Kamio 161
The Solute Clustering and Precipitation in Two-Step Aged Al-Mg-Si Alloys
. . . . . . . . .M. Murayama and K. Hono 165
Effects of Si and Ag on Precipitation in Al-Cu-Mg Alloys
. . . . . . . . .C. R. Hutchinson, K. Raviprasad and S. P. Ringer 169
Effects of Deformation on Precipitation in Al-Fe Dilute Alloys
. . . . . . . . .A. Yamamoto, H. Tsubakino and T. Kato 173
Coarsening Behavior of Cr Precipitates in B2-Ordered NiAl
. . . . . . . . .K. Oh-ishi, E. Tsutsumi, Z. Horita and M. Nemoto 177
Coarsening of Coherent Precipitates in a Solid Matrix
. . . . . . . . .H. A. Calderon, J. J. Cruz, L. Calzado, T. Mori, C. Kisielowski and C. Y. Wang 181
*Precipitation Reactions in Two Magnesium Alloys Containing Rare Earths
. . . . . . . . .G. Lorimer, R. A. Khosroshahi and M. Ahmed 185
Discontinuous Precipitation in Pb-Sn and Pb-Sn-Ag Alloys
. . . . . . . . .M. R. Notis 193
Formation of Lamellar Structure and its Mechanical Properties in Mo-Al Alloys
. . . . . . . . .R. Nino, S. Miura and T. Mohri 197
Crystallography of Cementite in Tempered Fe-Ni-C Alloys
. . . . . . . . .E. V. Pereloma, I. B. Timokhina and S. P. Swenser 201
Observation of Precipitates in Al-Mg-Si-Cu Alloy by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy
. . . . . . . . .I. Okumura, K. Matsuda, Y. Uetani, F. Shinagawa and S. Ikeno 205
HRTEM Observation of the Precipitates in Two-Step Aged Al-1.0mass%Mg2Si- 0.4mass%Si Alloy
. . . . . . . . .K. Matsuda, T. Kawabata, Y. Uetani, T. Sato, A. Kamio, F. Shinagawa and S. Ikeno 209
Morphological Evolution of γ 2 Precipitates in a β Cu-Al Matrix
. . . . . . . . .H. Goldenstein and I. G. S. Falleiros 213
Effects of Nucleation on Phase Separation Dynamics in Metastable States
. . . . . . . . .Y. Enomoto 217
Isothermal Precipitation in a β CuZnAl SM Alloy
. . . . . . . . .M. L. Castro and R. Romero 221
Heterogeneous Nucleation of Precipitate Phase θ ' in Microalloyed Al-Cu BasedAlloys
. . . . . . . . .X. Gao, J. F. Nie and B. C. Muddle 225
The Observation of Phase Transformation by HDDR Process in Sm-Fe-B-Ti System
. . . . . . . . .Z. Liu, T. Ohsuna, K. Hiraga and M. Tobise 229
Effect of Intermediate Argon Treatment on Microstructure and Anisotropy of HDDR-Treated Nd-Fe-B-Based Alloy Powders
. . . . . . . . .M. Itakura, K. Mishima, M. Eshima, N. Kuwano, K. Oki, R. Nakayama, Y. Ishii and K. Morimoto 233
The Role of Pretransitions in Allotropic Transformations
. . . . . . . . .R. Tognato 237
Correlation between the Evolution of Thermoelectric Power and the Microstructural Transformations Occuring during the Ageing of a 6061 Alloy
. . . . . . . . .V. Massardier, T. Epicier and P. Merle 241
Analysis of Phase Decomposition during Annealing in the Nb-Zr System Using the System Free Energy Theory
. . . . . . . . .Y. Toda, T. Koyama and T. Miyazaki 245
τ -Phase Formation Mechanism of Rapidly-Solidified Mn-Al-C Alloy
. . . . . . . . .J. H. Kim, C. T. Lee and W. K. Choo 249
Precipitation in a Cu-15 wt.% Ni-8 wt.% Sn Alloy
. . . . . . . . .V. M. Lopez-Hirata, A. de Jesus Arias-Perez and M. L. Saucedo-Munoz 253
Time-Resolved SWAXS on Phase Decomposition with Ordering
. . . . . . . . .H. Okuda, K. Ito, K. Osamura and Y. Amemiya 257
A Study of Phase Transformations in a Zn-22 wt.%Al-2 wt.%Cu Alloy
. . . . . . . . .H. J. Dorantes-Rosales, V. M. Lopez-Hirata and Y. H. Zhu 261
Phase Transformations in Ti-44Al-11Nb
. . . . . . . . .E. S. K. Menon, T. R. Halladay, A. G. Fox and R. Mahapatra 265
Precipitation Behavior of T' Metastable Phase in Al-Zn-Mg Based Alloys
. . . . . . . . .H. Adachi, K. Osamura, H. Okuda, K. Yokoe and J. Kusui 269
Peritectic Structures in Copper-Germanium Alloy Rod Pulled from the Melt
. . . . . . . . .Y. Imashimizu, J. Watanabe and M. Mohammad 273
Control of Microstructures by Heat Treatments and Creep-Rupture Properties in High-Tungsten Cobalt-Base Superalloys
. . . . . . . . .M. Tanaka, Y. Ito and R. Kato 277
In-Situ Observation of the Combustion Phase Transformation in a Mechanical Alloyed Ti-Al Powder Mixtures
. . . . . . . . .C. E. Wen, K. Yasue, J. G. Lin and Y. G. Zhang 281
Diffusional Phase Transformation of Massive γ in a Quenched TiAl Alloy
. . . . . . . . .C. E. Wen, K. Yasue, S. Q. Wei, J. G. Lin and C. Q. Chen 285
Evolution in Microstructure and Superplastic Flow at High-Strain-Rate in Dynamically Recrystallized Aluminum Alloy
. . . . . . . . .T. Hirata, T. Mukai, N. Saito, M. Kohzu, S. Tanabe and K. Higashi 289
Formation of α Phase from Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al Alloy Containing ω Precipitates
. . . . . . . . .A. Yamamoto and H. Tsubakino 293
Variation in Mushy Zone Length during Upward Directional Solidification in Pb-36mass%Sn Alloy
. . . . . . . . .M. Li, H. Iwasaki and T. Mori 297
Structure of Platelet Oxide Precipitates in Si Wafers
. . . . . . . . .Y. Tomokiyo, K. Mori, E. Tanaka and T. Okuyama 301

2.4. High Resolution Study of Phase Transformations

*Coherent Precipitation in Ni-Rich Ni-Ti Single Crystals
. . . . . . . . .G. Kostorz, M. Kompatscher and B. Schonfeld 305
Energy Filtering HRTEM Study of Equilibrium Mg2Si Phase in Al-Mg-Si Alloys
. . . . . . . . .K. Matsuda, T. Naoi, Y. Uetani, T. Sato, A. Kamio and S. Ikeno 313
X-ray Diffraction Study of Carburization Transformation from Tantalum to Tantalum Carbide
. . . . . . . . .F. Watari, M. Takahashi and K. Yada 317
Time-Resolved HREM of Metal-Mediated Crystallization of Amorphous Germanium Films
. . . . . . . . .N. Tanaka and M. Kawahara 321
Relation between Micro- and Magnetic-Structures of Iron-Platinum Alloys
. . . . . . . . .Y. Tanaka, K. Udoh, K. Hisatsune, M. Nakano and H. Fukunaga 325
Quantitative Analysis of L10-Ordered States in Ti-Al-Mo Ternary Alloys by IKL- ALCHEMI-EDX Method
. . . . . . . . .S. Hata, Y. Fujimoto, T. Narahara, N. Kuwano and K. Oki 329
Structures of Short Range Order in FCC-Based Ni-Mo Studied by HREM with Image Processing
. . . . . . . . .T. Mitate, S. Hata, N. Kuwano, S. Matsumura, D. Shindo and K. Oki 333

2.5. Effect of External Field to Phase Transformations

A Mechanism for Directional Coarsening of γ ' Precipitates in Nickel-base Single Crystal Superalloys
. . . . . . . . .Z. Peng, Y. Ren, B. Fan, Q. Mei, P. Yan, J. Zhao, Y. Wang and J. Sun 337
Mechanical Properties of Porous Copper Fabricated by Unidirectional Solidification under High Pressure Hydrogen
. . . . . . . . .S. K. Hyun, Y. Shiota, K. Murakami and H. Nakajima 341
Shock Induced Transformation in Rapidly Solidified Ti-Rich TiAl Powders
. . . . . . . . .M. Nishida, Y. Morizono, T. Matsuda and A. Chiba 345
The Deformation-Induced Order-Disorder Phase Transformation
. . . . . . . . .S. V. Starenchenko and V. A. Starenchenko 349
Shock Induced Regularization to Refractory Metal Di-Silicides from MA Precursor
. . . . . . . . .T. Aizawa 353
Effect of Pressure on Metamagnetic Transition of Magnetic Superconductor HoNi2B2C
. . . . . . . . .G. Oomi, N. Matsuda, T. Kagayama, Y. Uwatoko, B. K. Cho and P. C. Canfield 357
Study on the Sonochemical Preparation and Phase Stability of Binary Alloy Nanoparticles from Aqueous Solution
. . . . . . . . .T. Fujimoto, Y. Mizukoshi, Y. Maeda, Y. Nagata and R. Oshima 361
Martensitic Transformation of the γ Iron-Nitride Induced by External Magnetic Field
. . . . . . . . .T. Koyano, H. Ikeda, R. Yoshizaki, A. Tasaki, T. Takamasu, H. Ohtsuka, H. Wada, G. Kido and T. Ohba 365
Pressure and Magnetic Field Induced Metal-Insulator Transition in Eu0.58Sr0.42MnO3
. . . . . . . . .I. Kosaka, F. Honda, T. Kagayama, G. Oomi, E. V. Sampathkumaran and A. Sundaresan 369
Effect of Pressure on the Metamagnetic Phase Transition of UCoAl
. . . . . . . . .F. Honda, T. Kagayama, G. Oomi, V. Sechovsky, L. Havela, A. V. Andreev and Y. Shiokawa 373
Magnetic and Structural Phase Transformations in DyB6 under High Pressure
. . . . . . . . .T. Sakai, G. Oomi and S. Kunii 377
Stability of Intermediate ζ Phase in the Silver-Germanium System under High Pressure
. . . . . . . . .Y. Fujinaga 381
Effect of Applied Stress on Ordering of FePd
. . . . . . . . .T. Ichitsubo, K. Tanaka, M. Nakamoto, T. Miyoshi and M. Koiwa 385
Formation of Preferentially Oriented Structure of Ordered FePd under External Stress
. . . . . . . . .T. Ichitsubo, K. Tanaka, M. Nakamoto and M. Koiwa 389
Effects of High Magnetic Field on Diffusional Transformation Behavior and Structure
. . . . . . . . .H. Ohtsuka, Y. Xu, J.-K. Choi, Y. Oishi, T. Murai and H. Wada 393

2.6. Effect of Irradiation to Phase Transformations

Irradiation-Induced Roughening and Faceting of Coherent Precipitates
. . . . . . . . .P. Bellon 397
Electron-Irradiation-Induced Structural Change of Graphite
. . . . . . . . .S. Muto and T. Tanabe 401
Disordering Kinetics in Ni4Mo under Irradiation with Electrons and Mo Ions
. . . . . . . . .K. Yasuda, T. Watanabe, S. Matsumura and C. Kinoshita 405
Modeling of the Heterogeneous Long Range Ordering Induced by Cascade Irradiation in L12 Ordered Alloys
. . . . . . . . .C. Abromeit and S. Matsumura 409
Disordering Kinetics of Ni3Al Precipitates under Ion Irradiation
. . . . . . . . .G. Schmitz, J. C. Ewert, F. Haider, F. Harbsmeier and M. Uhrmacher 413
Dissolution of Ordered Precipitates due to Heterogeneous Disordering under Irradiation with Energetic Particles
. . . . . . . . .S. Matsumura, M. Okudaira and C. Kinoshita 417
Amorphization and Order-Disorder in Ni-Al System under High Energy Ion-Irradiation: A Computer Simulation Study
. . . . . . . . .A. Almazouzi, M. Spaczer, M. Alurralde and M. Victoria 421
Ion-Implantation-Induced Phase Transformation in III-V Compound Semiconductors
. . . . . . . . .M. Taniwaki, Y. Hayashi and T. Yoshiie 425
Formation of Copper Precipitate in FeCu and FeCuC Alloys with Irradiation
. . . . . . . . .F. Hori, A. Morita, H. Nishizawa and R. Oshima 429

2.7. Diffusion

* Solid State Diffusion and Configurational Kinetics
. . . . . . . . .M. Athenes, F. Soisson, P. Bellon and G. Martin 433
* Diffusion of Nickel in Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 Metallic Glass
. . . . . . . . .H. Nakajima, T. Kojima, T. Zumkley, N. Nishiyama and A. Inoue 441
Retarded Diffusion and Decomposition of Zr41Ti14Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 Bulk Glass
. . . . . . . . .. M.-P. Macht, V. Naundorf, P. Fielitz, J. Rusing, E. Budke and G. Fronhberg 445
Enhancement of Diffusion by Martensitic Transformations
. . . . . . . . .A. Seeger, O. Wieland, H. D. Carstanjen, W. Frank and M. Neumann 449
The Mathematical Model and Computer Simulation of Interdiffusion Driven by the Reactions at Interfaces
. . . . . . . . .M. Danielewski, R. Filipek, K. Holly, M. Hetmanczyk and J. Laskawiec 453
*Access to Atomic Jump Processes in Ordered Alloys
. . . . . . . . .W. Pfeiler, H. Lang, W. P"uschl and R. Kozubski 457
*Point Defects and Diffusion in Ni3Al
. . . . . . . . .H. Numakura, N. Kurita and M. Koiwa 465
“Order-Order” Kinetics in Intermetallics: Experimental and Computer-Simulation Study
. . . . . . . . .R. Kozubski, P. Oramus, W. Pfeiler, V. Pierron-Bohnes and M. C. Cadeville 473
Long-Range Order and Diffusion in Iron-Aluminides
. . . . . . . . .H. Mehrer, M. Eggersmann, M. Salamon, C. Khoukaz, R. Galler, S. Dorfman and D. Fuks 477
Measurements of Intrinsic Diffusion Coefficients in Ni3Al
. . . . . . . . .K. Fujiwara, M. Watanabe, Z. Horita, M. Nemoto, K. Noumi and T. Simozaki 481
Reaction Diffusion between Commercial Al Alloys and Stainless Steel during Friction Welding
. . . . . . . . .S. Fukumoto, H. Tsubakino, K. Okita, M. Aritoshi and T. Tomita 485
Local Characterization of the Diffusion Process during Discontinuous Phase Transformations
. . . . . . . . .P. Zieba and W. Gust 489
Deviation from Darken's Relation in Au/Fe Diffusion Couples
. . . . . . . . .Y. Yamazaki and Y. Iijima 493
Prediction of Interfacial Reactions Using Diffusion Simulation
. . . . . . . . .B.-J. Lee 497
Nitriding of Experimental High Vanadium Alloys
. . . . . . . . .H. Larsson, H. Wisell and J. Agren 501
Interfacial Reaction and Diffusion Path in AlN/Metal Systems
. . . . . . . . .M. Naka and M. H. El-Sayed 505
Interfacial Structure and Diffusion Path of SiC/Metal Systems
. . . . . . . . .T. Fukai, M. Naka, J. C. Schuster and T. Shibayanagi 509
Interdiffusion in Au/Ni Diffusion Couple
. . . . . . . . .T. Sugiyama, Y. Yamazaki and Y. Iijima 513
Reaction Diffusion in Co-Ti System
. . . . . . . . .O. Taguchi and Y. Iijima 517
Point Defects in B2-type Ordered FeAl Alloys
. . . . . . . . .T. Haraguchi and M. Kogachi 521

2.8. Effect of Elastic Strain Energy

*On the Splitting of Coherent Precipitates
. . . . . . . . .J. K. Lee 525
* Elastic Misfit Effects in Solid Phase Transitions
. . . . . . . . .A. Onuki 533
Equilibrium Shapes of Coherent, Misfitting Precipitates
. . . . . . . . .T. A. Abinandanan, R. Sankarasubramanian and C. S. Jog 541
*Morphological Evolution of γ ' -type Particles in Ni-Base Alloys: Shape Characterization
. . . . . . . . .F. Li, S. V. Prikhodko, A. J. Ardell and D. Kim 545
Development of Spatial Correlations during Coarsening in Elastically Stressed Solids
. . . . . . . . .N. Akaiwa, K. Thornton and P. W. Voorhees 553
3-Dimensional Monte Carlo Simulations of Directional Precipitate Coarsening in Alloys under External Load
. . . . . . . . .H. Gupta, R. Weinkamer, P. Fratzl and J. L. Lebowitz 557
Effects of Elastic Anisotropy on Growth of Metastable Precipitates in a Cu-Be Alloy
. . . . . . . . .A. Yamamoto and H. Tsubakino 561

2.9. Grain Boundary and Interface

*Surface Roughening Transition and Coarsening of Grains in Liquid Matrix
. . . . . . . . .D. Y. Yoon and C. W. Park 565
Interphase Boundary Structure of Grain Boundary Precipitate in a Ni-Cr Alloy
. . . . . . . . .K. Oishi, T. Furuhara and T. Maki 573
Morphological Stability of γ ' /β Interface Formed in Ni-Al-X Ternary Diffusion Couples
. . . . . . . . .R. Kainuma, M. Ichinose, I. Ohnuma and K. Ishida 577
Use of D-Lattice for Study of Crystallography of Phase Transformations
. . . . . . . . .W.-Z. Zhang 581
Effects of Grain Boundary Allotriomorphs on Growth of Discontinuous Coarsening in TiAl(γ )-Ti3Al(α 2)Lamellar Alloys
. . . . . . . . .S. Mitao and L. A. Bendersky 585
Prediction and Observation of Interface Boundary Structure in BCC/HCP Alloy System
. . . . . . . . .N. Miyano, K. Ameyama and G. C. Weatherly 589
*Composition Dependence of Kinetics of Diffusion Induced Recrystallization in Polycrystalline Cu/Ni Diffusion Couples
. . . . . . . . .Y. Yamamoto, S. Uemura and M. Kajihara 593
Temperature and Orientation Dependence of Austenite/B1 Type Compound Interfacial Energy
. . . . . . . . .Z.-G. Yang and M. Enomoto 599
Diffusion in Multilayered Nb/Ti Materials
. . . . . . . . .R. Taillard and A. Belhadj 603
*Effect of Misfit Strain on the Growth of Intermediate Phases
. . . . . . . . .W. C. Johnson and B. R. Hinderliter 607

III. Computational Approach to Phase Transformations

3.1. Atomistic Approach to Phase Equilibria
*The Status of First Principles Phase Diagram Calculations
. . . . . . . . .D. de Fontaine 617
*Integrated Quantum-Mechanical Approach to Stability, Chemical Order and Phase Evolution in Complex Alloys
. . . . . . . . .P. E. A. Turchi, D. Mayou and J. P. Julien 625
Impurity-Impurity Interaction Energies in Metals and Phase Diagrams of Binary Alloys
. . . . . . . . .T. Hoshino and M. Asato 629
Solid Solubility Limit of Impurities in Metals by KKR-Green's -Function Method and Cluster Variation Method
. . . . . . . . .M. Asato, T. Hoshino and K. Masuda-Jindo 633
Theoretical Studies of Substoichiometric MoC1−x
. . . . . . . . .H. W. Hugosson, O. Eriksson and B. Johansson 637
Adiabatic Potential Surface for bcc-hcp Transformation in Titanium
. . . . . . . . .M. Aoki, H. Kawabe and S. R. Nishitani 641
Modification of Electronic Structure due to Phase Transition in Perovskite-Type Oxide, SrZrO3
. . . . . . . . .M. Yoshino, H. Yukawa and M. Morinaga 645
Simulations of Dilute Tungsten-Boron Solid Solutions
. . . . . . . . .S. Dorfman, V. Liubich, D. Fuks and K. C. Mundim 649
Concentration Dependence of Interaction Parameters in Fe-Al Alloy from Non-Empirical Study
. . . . . . . . .S. Dorfman, D. Fuks and V. Liubich 653
Role of Chemical Bonding State on the Stability of Cubic Zirconia
. . . . . . . . .A. Kuwabara, J. Katamura, Y. Ikuhara and T. Sakuma 657
Numerical Calculation with Empirical Interatomic Potential for Ordering Mechanism of InGaAs/(110)InP
. . . . . . . . .Y. Kangawa, M. Suenaga, N. Kuwano and K. Oki 661
Continuous Displacement CVM of Elastic Constants of BCC Alloys
. . . . . . . . .R. Kikuchi and K. Masuda-Jindo 665
Configurational Thermodynamics and Kinetics Studied by Cluster Variation and Path Probability Methods
. . . . . . . . .T. Mohri 669
Brittle Fracture: A Non Equilibrium Dynamic Instability Leading to a Coherent Acoustic Emission
. . . . . . . . .G. Benedek, G. Caglioti and T. Mohri 673
Theory of Instability Phenomena and its Application to Amorphous Structure
. . . . . . . . .Y. Aikawa and K. Fujii 677
Metal-Hydrogen Interaction in Hydrogen Storage Compounds
. . . . . . . . .K. Nakatsuka, M. Takagi, M. Nakai, H. Yukawa and M. Morinaga 681
A Direct Observation of Electron Density Level Structural Change Through Phase Transition
. . . . . . . . .M. Takata, T. Ikeda, E. Nishibori, K. Kato and M. Sakata 685

3.2. Phenomenological Study of Phase Equilibria

Progress in the Thermodynamic Modelling of Order/Disorder Transformations with the Compound Energy Formalism
. . . . . . . . .B. Sundman, S. G. Fries, A. Kussofsky and W. A. Oates 689
The Molar Gibbs Energy and Phase Equilibria Computations
. . . . . . . . .J. Tomiska 693
Applications of Multicomponent Phase Diagrams to Aluminum Alloys
. . . . . . . . .C. Sigli and R. Shahani 697
Phase Equilibria Exhibiting Anomalies due to Order-Disorder Transition
. . . . . . . . .H. Ohtani 701
Phase Equilibrium in the Fe-Co Side of Fe-Ge-Co Ternary Ordering System
. . . . . . . . .T. Kozakai and T. Miyazaki 705
Symmetry-Breaking Transitions in Equilibrium Shapes of Isolated, Coherent Particles in Cubic Crystals
. . . . . . . . .R. Sankarasubramanian, C. S. Jog and T. A. Abinandanan 709

3.3. Computer Simulation of Phase Transformations

Time Dependent Ginzburg-Landau Approach to Pattern Formations in Cubic-Tetragonal Structural Transformations
. . . . . . . . .Y. Yamazaki 713
Coupling of Multicomponent Thermodynamic Databases to a Phase Field Model: Application to γ ' Growth in a Ternary Ni-Al-Cr Model Superalloy
. . . . . . . . .U. Grafe, B. Bottger, J. Tiaden and S. G. Fries 717
Real-Time Scaled Simulations of GP-Zone Formation in AlCu
. . . . . . . . .L. Lochte, C. Feig and G. Gottstein 721
*Phase-Field Simulation of Hexagonal→Orthorhombic Transformations
. . . . . . . . .Y. H. Wen, Y. Z. Wang, L. Bendersky and L. Q. Chen 725
Computer Simulation of the Phase Decomposition in Real Alloy Systems Based on the Phase Field Method
. . . . . . . . .T. Koyama, T. Kozakai and T. Miyazaki 733
A Phase-Field Model for Diffusion and Curvature Controlled Phase Transformations in Steels
. . . . . . . . .J. Tiaden and U. Grafe 737
Using Neural Networks to Describe Complex Phase Transformation Behavior
. . . . . . . . .J. M. Vitek and S. A. David 741
*Computer Simulation of Atomic Lattice Models for Phase Separation in Alloys with Coherent Lattice Misfit
. . . . . . . . .P. Fratzl, O. Penrose and J. L. Lebowitz 745
Monte Carlo Study of Precipitation of Two Phases in a Ternary Alloy
. . . . . . . . .T. A. Abinandanan, A. P. Raju and M. Rajesh 753
Kinetics of Decomposition of Metastable Solid Solutions: Comparison between Monte Carlo Simulations and Classical Theories
. . . . . . . . .F. Soisson and G. Martin 757
Modelling of Microstructural Evolutions in Ni-Base Superalloys under Stress
. . . . . . . . .Y. Saito, S. Tanabe, E. Onuma, H. Murakami and H. Harada 761
* Heterophase Omega Phase Formation and Elastic Energy
. . . . . . . . .H. Kubo 765
Elementary Events of Nucleation of Phase Transformation in a Computer-Modeled Metal
. . . . . . . . .T. Makino, K. Okouchi, K. Itoigawa and S. Matsuda 773
Graphical Molecular Dynamics Simulator for Materials Simulations
. . . . . . . . .D. K. Choi and J.-H. Kim 777
MD-Calculations of the Spinel Formation at the Alumina/Magnesia Interface: Building and Confirming the Model
. . . . . . . . .W. Wunderlich and H. Awaji 781
Classical Molecular Dynamics Method as a Tool for Studying Phase Transformations
. . . . . . . . .M. Takeuchi, Y. Masuda and S. Muto 785
Kinetics of Consecutive, Coupled Phase Transformations
. . . . . . . . .A. T. W. Kempen, F. Sommer and E. J. Mittemeijer 789
The Role of Dislocation as a Nucleation Site of Phase Transformation in a Computer-Modeled Metal
. . . . . . . . .Y. Sato, T. Makino and S. Matsuda 793

Pt. II

IV. Displacive Transformations

4.1. Premartensitic Phenomena

*Neutron Scattering Studies of Pre-transitional Effects in Solid-Solid Phase Transformations
. . . . . . . . .S. M. Shapiro 799
* Electronic Origin of the Martensitic Transitions in Fe-Based Systems and Hume-Rothery Systems: A Comparison
. . . . . . . . .E. F. Wassermann, J. Kastner, M. Acet and P. Entel 807
* Transitional Structure of Martensitic Transformation in AuCd Alloys
. . . . . . . . .T. Ohba 815
Vibrational Anharmonicity and Martensitic Transition in Cu-Based Alloys
. . . . . . . . .L. Manosa, A. Gonzfalez-Comas and A. Planes 823
Elastic Softening of Ti49.2Ni50.8 Single Crystal Prior to B2-B19' Martensitic Transformation
. . . . . . . . .N. Miura, J. Zhang, X. Ren, K. Otsuka, T. Suzuki, K. Tanaka, Yu. I. Chumlyakov and M. Asai 827

4.2. Phase Stability and Role of Lattice Defects

*On the Stability of Martensitic and Equilibrium Phases in the Noble Metal Alloys
. . . . . . . . .M. Ahlers 831
*Mechanism of Martensite Aging Effect and Rubber-Like Behavior
. . . . . . . . .X. Ren and K. Otsuka 839
Role of Lattice Defects in Martensitic Transformation
. . . . . . . . .T. Suzuki and M. Shimono 847
Atomistic Simulation of the Martensitic Transformation with a Periodic Boundary Condition
. . . . . . . . .M. Shimono, H. Onodera and T. Suzuki 851
Ab Initio Study of Displacive Phase Transformations in Iron
. . . . . . . . .M. Sob, M. Friak, L. G. Wang and V. Vitek 855
Elastic Compatibility, Martensitic Textures and Weak Plasticity
. . . . . . . . .A. Saxena, T. Lookman, S. R. Shenoy and A. R. Bishop 859
The Influence of Plastic Distortion on the Evolution of a Phase Transformation Front
. . . . . . . . .I. Dobovsek 863
Dynamic Effects in Cu-Zn-Al Shape Memory Alloys
. . . . . . . . .V. Torra and A. Isalgue 867
Charge Density Distribution of the Parent Phase of a Cu-Al-Ni Alloy by the Maximum Entropy Method
. . . . . . . . .Y. Kubota,T. Kagotani, K. Kifune, T. Tadaki, E. Nishibori, M. Takata, M. Sakata and Y. Nakata 871
B2→γ2' + ζ2' Martensitic Transformation in Au-48.5at%Cd Alloy
. . . . . . . . .T. Ishii, X. Ren, K. Otsuka and A. Nukui 875
Influence of Vacancies on Ageing Effect in AuCd Shape Memory Alloys
. . . . . . . . .T. Ito, T. Haraguchi, M. Kogachi, T. Ohba, X. Ren and K. Otsuka 879
Empirical Examination of the Validity for Martensitic Stainless Steels of the Model for Predicting Ms Temperature
. . . . . . . . .H. Nakagawa and T. Miyazaki 883
Decomposition Phenomena in Ni-Mn-Ti Austenite
. . . . . . . . .D. Schryvers, J.-W. Seo, R. Oliver, W. Vermeulen and P. Potapov 887
Martensitic Transformation of Yttria-Stabilized Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystals during Superplastic Deformation
. . . . . . . . .H.-G. Jeong, K. Higashi and K. Hiraga 891
Transmission Electron Microscopy of Metal-Insulator Phase Transition of Spinel Type CuIr2S4 Compound
. . . . . . . . .R. Oshima, H. Ishibashi, K. Tanioka and K. Nakahigashi 895
Structural and Magnetic Phase Transitions in MnCo0.97 Ge
. . . . . . . . .T. Kanomata, H. Ishigaki, T. Suzuki and T. Kaneko 899
Coherency Constrains and Martensite Transformation of Iron Particles Embedded in Cu-Fe Matrix
. . . . . . . . .A. M. Wusatowska-Sarnek, H. Miura and T. Sakai 903

4.3. Kinetics of Martensitic Transformations

*Kinetics and Origin of Martensitic Transformations in Some Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Alloys
. . . . . . . . .T. Kakeshita and T. Saburi 907
AFM Study of Martensite Formed Isothermally in Zirconia-Yttria System
. . . . . . . . .H. Tsubakino, Y. Kuroda and M. Niibe 915
Acoustic Emission Behavior during Martensitic Transformation of Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy Single Crystal
. . . . . . . . .K. Yoshida, S. Kihara and K. Sakamaki 919
In-Situ Mossbauer Study on the Nucleation Process of Martensitic Transformation in Fe68.3Ni31.7 Alloy
. . . . . . . . .Y. Yoshida, N. Murase, T. Kakeshita and T. Saburi 923
Evaluation of Nonchemical Energies due to Specimen Size Effect Based on New Thermodynamic Scheme for Thermoelastic Martensitic Transformations
. . . . . . . . .H. Sakamoto 927
The Effect of Specimen Size on Martensitic Transformation in Ti-50 at%Ni Alloy under Quasi-Static Condition
. . . . . . . . .H. Sakamoto, H. Sakamoto and S. Onai 931
A New Treatment for the Nucleation of Martensite by Thermal Activation
. . . . . . . . .A. Borgenstam and M. Hillert 935
Kinetics of the Martensitic Transformations in Au-Cd Alloys
. . . . . . . . .H. Saitoh, M. Fujimoto, H. Abe, R. Matsuo, M. Takimoto, Y. Matsuo and K. Ohshima 939
Martensitic Nucleation by Thermal and Mechanical Activation in Iron Based Alloys
. . . . . . . . .X. Q. Zhao 943

4.4. New Experimental Techniques for Studying Displacive Transformations

*Advanced TEM Studies of Martensite and Related Phase Transformations
. . . . . . . . .D. Schryvers 947
Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy on Phase Transformation of Alloys
. . . . . . . . .D. Shindo, Y. Murakami and Y. Ikematsu 955
*Use of AFM and TEM to Study the Intrinsic Strain Associated with Martensitic and Bainitic Transformations
. . . . . . . . .K. Marukawa, I. Kumagai and M. Tabuchi 959
Structural Transformation in Bi1−x Cax MnO3 (0.75≤x≤ 0.95) Studied by Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy
. . . . . . . . .Y. Murakami, K. Ando and D. Shindo 965
High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Studies of the Austenite-Martensite and the Austenite-Bainite Interfaces in Fe-Based Alloys
. . . . . . . . .S. Kajiwara, K. Ogawa, T. Kikuchi, H. Okamoto and M. Oka 969
Studies of Displacive Phase Transformations in Crystalline Solids Using Grazing-Incidence X-ray Techniques
. . . . . . . . .G. Landmesser, U. Klemradt, T. R. Finlayson, R. L. Johnson and J. Peisl 973
Field Induced Martensitic Transformation in Co and Co Alloys
. . . . . . . . .T. Tanaka, M. Takahashi and S. Kadowaki 977
Phase Transformation of Fe-Rh Alloys Induced by High Speed Deformation
. . . . . . . . .R. Oshima, M. Fukuzumi, F. Hori, M. Komatsu and M. Kiritani 981
In-Situ Observation of Stress-Induced Martensite Transformation in SUS304 Stainless Steel by Mossbauer Spectroscopy
. . . . . . . . .Y. Yoshida and N. Murase 985
Positron Annihiration Study of Phase Transition for fcc FeNi Alloys
. . . . . . . . .K. Ohmori, T. Shimizu, T. Hamajima, Y. Muneyoshi and M. Matsui 989

4.5. Ferrous Shape Memory Alloys

High Speed Deformation and Structural Change in Ferrous Shape Memory Alloys
. . . . . . . . .N. Yoneyama, T. Masuya, S. Kumai and A. Sato 993
Influence of Carbon on the Shape Memory Effect in Fe-Mn-Si Alloys
. . . . . . . . .D. P. Dunne and H. Liu 997
AFM Observation on Surface Relief Produced by Stress-Induced Martensitic Transformation in Fe-Mn-Si-Cr Shape Memory Alloy
. . . . . . . . .D. Liu, T. Kikuchi, S. Kajiwara and N. Shinya 1004
Transformation Conditions in an Fe-Based Shape Memory Alloy under Multiaxial Stresses
. . . . . . . . .K. Tanaka, T. Watanabe and F. Nishimura 1008
Martensitic Transformation FCC→HCP
. . . . . . . . .T. Y. Hsu (Xu Zuyao) 1012
Coherency Strain Energies of Transformation Dislocations in CoFe Alloys
. . . . . . . . .T. Waitz, H. P. Karnthaler and C. Rentenberger 1016
Observation on Reversion of Stress-Induced Martensite in Fe-Mn-Si-Cr Shape Memory Alloy Using Atomic Force Microscopy
. . . . . . . . .D. Liu, T. Kikuchi, S. Kajiwara and N. Shinya 1020
The Effect of Stacking Fault Configuration on the Martensitic Transformation in Fe-Mn-Si Alloys
. . . . . . . . .Y. H. Rong, Z. H. Guo, S. P. Chen, T. Y. Hsu (Xu Zuyao) and Y. X. Guo 1024
Internal Friction Versus Time in a CuZnAl Poly-Crystal
. . . . . . . . .M. P. Baron and M. Morin 1028
Study of Stress Induced Martensitic Transformation in Fe-Ni-C Alloys
. . . . . . . . .M.-X. Zhang, P. M. Kelly and J. D. Gates 1032

4.6. Ti-Ni-based Shape Memory Alloys

Effect of Thermal Cycling on Martensitic Transformations in Ti-Pd-Ni Alloys
. . . . . . . . .W. Cai and K. Otsuka 1036
Twin Boundary Motions and Associated Elastic and Anelasitic Features in H-doped NiTi Alloys
. . . . . . . . .A. Biscarini, R. Campanella, B. Coluzzi, L. Di Masso, G. Mazzolai and F. M. Mazzolai 1040
Thermomechanical Behavior of TiPd-Based SMA Reinforced Ti Matrix Smart Composites
. . . . . . . . .K. Mizuuchi, K. Inoue, K. Hamada, K. Yamauchi, K. Enami, M. Itami and Y. Okanda 1044
HREM Studies on the Deformed Martensite in Cold Rolled TiNi Alloys
. . . . . . . . .Y. F. Zheng, L. C. Zhao and H. Q. Ye 1048
Mechanical Fatigue Crack Growth Characteristics of a Ti-Ni-Cu Shape Memory Alloy
. . . . . . . . .Y. Kishi, Z. Yajima, K. Shimizu and M. Asai 1052
Cyclic Deformation Properties of TiNi Shape Memory Alloy
. . . . . . . . .H. Tobushi, Y. Shimeno, K. Takata and T. Hashimoto 1056
Boundary Structure of 〈121〉 Type II Twin in B19 Martensite in Ti-Pd Shape Memory Alloy
. . . . . . . . .S. Ii, M. Nishida and K. Hiraga 1060

4.7. Thin Film Shape Memory Materials

Martensitic Phase Transformation in NiTi Thin Films Studied by NMR
. . . . . . . . .S. Crevoiserat, P. Scherrer, T. Lehnert, C. Dimitropoulos and R. Gotthardt 1064
Lattice Softening and its Relation to the Martensitic Transformation in Nanometer-Sized Particles of Fe-Ni Alloys
. . . . . . . . .K. Asaka, Y. Hirotsu and T. Tadaki 1068
Characterization of Cu-Al-Ni Based Melt Spun Shape Memory Ribbons
. . . . . . . . .C. Segui, T. Goryczka, J. Pons, E. Cesari and H. Morawiec 1072
Ageing Evolution of the Transformation Behaviour in Some NiTi-Based Melt-Spun Ribbons
. . . . . . . . .R. Santamarta, E. Cesari, J. Pons, C. Segui, P. Ochin and R. Portier 1076
Shape Fixity and Shape Recovery in a Film of Shape Memory Polymer of Polyurethane Series
. . . . . . . . .H. Tobushi, N. Ito, K. Takata and S. Hayashi 1080
Stress Induced Martensite in NiTi Corrugated Films
. . . . . . . . .M. Wuttig, Y. Zheng, J. S. Slutsker, K. Mori and J. Li 1084
High Resolution Observation of Guinier-Preston Zones in Sputter-Deposited Ti-Rich Ti-Ni Thin Films
. . . . . . . . .Y. Nakata, T. Tadaki, Y. Hirotsu, H. Sakamoto, A. Tanaka and K. Shimizu 1088
Further Studies on Non-Equilibrium Phase and Nanocrystals Formed during Crystallization of Amorphous Ti-Rich Ti-Ni Thin Films
. . . . . . . . .T. Kikuchi, K. Ogawa, S. Kajiwara, T. Matsunaga and S. Miyazaki 1092
The Effect of Texture on Shape Memory in Cu-Al-Ni Melt-Spun Ribbons
. . . . . . . . .H. Morawiec, J. Lelatko and E. Cesari 1096

4.8. New Shape Memory Materials

*Structural Phase Transformations in Ni-Mn-Ga Alloys
. . . . . . . . .V. V. Kokorin 1100
Martensitic Transformation and Magnetic Properties of Ni-base Heusler Alloys
. . . . . . . . .K. Tsuchiya, A. Ohashi and M. Umemoto 1108
Phase Transformations in Melt-Spun Ni-Mn-Ga Alloys
. . . . . . . . .V. Chernenko, C. Segui, J. Pons, E. Cesari, P. Ochin and R. Portier 1112
Ordering and Quasi-Martensitic Transformations in Au-Cu-Al Alloys
. . . . . . . . .F. C. Levey and M. B. Cortie 1116
Martensitic and Magnetic Transformations in Ni2MnGa-Based Alloys
. . . . . . . . .K. Inoue, K. Enami, M. Igawa, K. Inoue, Y. Yamaguchi and K. Ohoyama 1120
Phase Transformation of Ni2+xMn1−x Ga(x= 0~ 0.19)
. . . . . . . . .M. Matsumoto, T. Kanomata, M. Ebisuya, T. Kaneko, T. Takagi, J. Tani and T. Fujino 1124

4.9. Diffusional-Displacive Phase Transformations

*Characteristics of Diffusional-Displacive Transformation Products
. . . . . . . . .B. C. Muddle and J. F. Nie 1128
*In Situ High-Resolution and Energy-Filtering Transmission Electron Microscope Observations of Interphase Boundary Dynamics in Diffusional and Diffusionless FCC-HCP Phase Transformations
. . . . . . . . .J. M. Howe, M. M. Tsai and A. A. Csontos 1136
Defect Mechanism of Phase Transformations
. . . . . . . . .R. C. Pond, T. Nixon and J. Hirth 1144
*Study on the Formation Mechanism of Bainite
. . . . . . . . .H.-S. Fang, C. Zhang and Y.-K. Zheng 1148
Homogeneous Precipitation of L10 Type Ordered FePd in Advanced Heat-Resistant Martensitic Steels
. . . . . . . . .M. Igarashi and S. Muneki 1156
Interaction of Phase Transformation and Heat Production
. . . . . . . . .F. D. Fischer, E. R. Oberaigner, G. Wagendorfer and K. Tanaka 1160
Bainitic Transformation in High Mn Austempered Ductile Iron
. . . . . . . . .M. N. Ahmadabadi 1164
HCP Phase Produced in the Temperature Range of Lower Bainite Formation in an Fe-2Si-1.4C Alloy
. . . . . . . . .K. Ogawa, S. Kajiwara, H. Okamoto and M. Oka 1168
Formation Process of Columnar and Nodular Bainites in Hypereutectoid Plain Carbon Steels
. . . . . . . . .H. Okamoto and M. Oka 1172
Bainitic Microstructure and its Transformation Kinetics in Low Carbon Steels
. . . . . . . . .M. Takahashi, Y. Watanabe and H. Tamehiro 1176
Surface Reliefs of Black Plates in a Ti-Mo Alloy
. . . . . . . . .H. Guo, M. Enomoto and J. Wang 1180
Investigation of ω -Phase Transformation in β -Ti Alloys due to Quenching, Stressing and Cooling Using Electron Microscopy
. . . . . . . . .E. Sukedai, H. Matsumoto and H. Hashimoto 1184
ω Phases in β -Ti Alloys, an Example of Diffusionless and Diffusional Phase Transformation
. . . . . . . . .S. Komatsu, M. Ikeda and T. Sugimoto 1188
TEM and HRTEM Study of 4H Precipitates Produced during the Dezincification of β Cu-Zn
. . . . . . . . .H. E. Troiani, A. Tolley and M. Ahlers 1192

V. Phase Transformations in New Materials

5.1. Nano-Crystallization

*Production and Application of Zr-Based Bulk Amorphous Alloys Containing Nanocrystalline Particles
. . . . . . . . .A. Inoue, C. Fan and T. Zhang 1199
Atom Probe Studies of Nanocrystallization of Amorphous Alloys
. . . . . . . . .K. Hono and D. H. Ping 1207
Structural Evolution of Zr60Al15Ni25 Bulk Metallic Glass in Supercooled Liquid Region
. . . . . . . . .S. Sato, E. Matsubara, S. Tanaka, M. Imafuku, Y. Waseda, T. Zhang and A. Inoue 1211
Bulk Nanocrystalline Amorphous Alloys
. . . . . . . . .C. Fan and A. Inoue 1215
Control of Nanocrystalline Structure for Bulk Glassy Metal
. . . . . . . . .Y. Yokoyama, K. Yamano, K. Fukaura, H. Sunada and A. Inoue 1219
Nanostructure Analysis of Amorphous Fe-Zr-B(-Cu) Alloys in the Early Stage of Crystallization
. . . . . . . . .H. Kai, T. Ohkubo, Y. Nakata, Y. Hirotsu and A. Makino 1223
TEM Observation of Recrystallization of Amorphous Silicon Formed by Gold Implantation
. . . . . . . . .K. Matsuoka, H. Kohno and S. Takeda 1227
Structural Modification of Amorphous Silicon by Intense X-ray Irradiation
. . . . . . . . .S. Muto, Y. Kobayashi, K. M. Yu, W. Walukiewicz, C. J. Echer, H. C. Jin and J. R. Abelson 1231
Effects of Electropulsing on the Crystallization Process in Amorphous Pd80Si20
. . . . . . . . .H. Mizubayashi and N. Kameyama 1235
Activation Energy in Crystallization Process of Tb-Fe and Tb-Fe-Si Amorphous Alloys
. . . . . . . . .K. Yamada, Y. Iijima, K. Fukamichi and M. Dezuka 1239
Microstructure of C60/Nanotube Composites Produced under High Pressure
. . . . . . . . .H. Satsuki, T. Kuzumaki, T. Hayashi, M. Akaishi, K. Miyazawa, H. Ichinose and K. Ito 1243
Formation of Ductile Amorphous Ni-W and Fe-W Electrodeposits and Their Nanocrystallization
. . . . . . . . .T. Yamasaki, R. Tomohira and Y. Ogino 1247
Crystallization Processes of Nd-Fe-Cr-B Amorphous Ribbons
. . . . . . . . .Y. Ohmori, Y. Kadoya, K. Nakai, S. Hirosawa and H. Kanekiyo 1251

5.2. Thin Film, Interfaces and Nano-Structure

Atomic and Magnetic Structures of Fe-Cu Alloys Prepared by Mechanical Alloying Technique
. . . . . . . . .H. Ino and K. Tokumitsu 1255
Phase Transformations Induced in Nanocrystalline Materials during Mechanical Alloying
. . . . . . . . .B. S. Murty, J. Joardar, M. K. Datta and S. K. Pabi 1259
Transformations in Mechanically Alloyed Co-Fe-Ti Powders
. . . . . . . . .H. A. Calderon, J. G. Cabanas-Moreno, R. Martinez-Sanchez, L. Rendon, M. Umemoto and E. Van Cappellen 1263
Mechanical Milling of Intermetallic Compounds R2TM17(R= Y, Gd and TM= Fe, Ni)
. . . . . . . . .H. Takano, K. Honda, Y. Mitsuboshi, S. Murayama, K. Hoshi, K. H. J. Buschow and H. Bakker 1267
Solid State Amorphization of Structural Ceramics by Mechanical Alloying
. . . . . . . . .H. Kimura and K. Hongo 1271
*Phase Transformations in Constrained Films
. . . . . . . . .A. L. Roytburd 1275
Interreaction of Al/Ag Thin Layers
. . . . . . . . .G. Schmitz, O. Svenson, P. Troche and F. Harbsmeier 1283
Magnetic Transformation of Low Dimensional Magnetic Materials
. . . . . . . . .B. Sadeh, Y. Yamada, Y. Kondo and M. Matsui 1287
*Phase Equilibrium in Nanometer-Sized Particles
. . . . . . . . .H. Mori and H. Yasuda 1291
Segregation Induced Phase Transformations in Nanostructures
. . . . . . . .D. L. Beke, Z. Erdelyi, P. Bakos, C. Cserhati and I. A. Szabo 1297
New Fullerenes in the C-B-N System Formed through Electron Irradiation Induced Solid State Phase Transformation
. . . . . . . . .D. Golberg, Y. Bando, O. Stephan, K. Kurashima, T. Sasaki, T. Sato and C. Goringe 1301
Synthesis of Lithium Storage Intermetallic Compounds and Their Anode Behaviors in Secondary Batteries
. . . . . . . . .H. Sakaguchi, H. Honda, H. Maeta and T. Esaka 1305
Common Features of Phase Changes in Metastable Transition Metal Carbides Such as Fe-C, Ni-C and Co-C Prepared by Reactive Sputtering
. . . . . . . . .O. Nittono, M. Azumi, Y. Hashiba and M. Wakamori 1309
Relation Between Phase Separation and Properties of Al-N-Co and Al-N-Co/Al-Co Films
. . . . . . . . .A. G. Roy and O. Nittono 1313
Phase Changes in Compound Films Prepared by Alternate Stacking of In and Sb Layers
. . . . . . . . .M. A. Taher, D. Fukushima and O. Nittono 1317
The Phase Transformation of CVD κ -Al2O3 Multilayers Separated by Thin Intermediate TiN or TiC Layers
. . . . . . . . .C. Berne, M. Halvarsson, A. Larsson and S. Ruppi 1321
Transmission Electron Microscopy and Electron Diffraction Study of the Alloying Process of Gold-Indium Films
. . . . . . . . .K. Kifune, Y. Kubota, K. Yamamoto and T. Tadaki 1325
Microstructure Changes during Annealing of Ag/Amorphous-Si and Al/Amorphous-Si Bilayer Films Deposited on SiO2 Substrate
. . . . . . . . .M. Doi 1329

5.3. Quasicrystals

Phase Transformations of Decagonal Quasicrystals
. . . . . . . . .W. Steurer 1333
In-Situ X-ray Diffraction Study on Stability of Quasicrystals under High Pressures
. . . . . . . . .M. Hasegawa, A. P. Tsai, T. Kondo, T. Yagi and T. Kikegawa 1337
Phase Transformations in Decagonal Al-Co-Ni Quasicrystals Studied by TEM
. . . . . . . . .S. Ritsch, K. Hiraga, T. Godecke and R. Luck 1341
Formation of Porous Structure and Metallic-Covalent Bonding Conversion under Crystal-Quasicrystal Transformation
. . . . . . . . .K. Kirihara, T. Kurahashi and K. Kimura 1345
Characterisation of Quasicrystalline and Crystalline Forms of the T Phase in Isothermally Aged Al-Mg-Ag Alloys
. . . . . . . . .M. Kubota, J. F. Nie and B. C. Muddle 1349
Melting Temperature of Lead Nanoparticles Embedded in Al-Cu-V Amorphous and Quasicrystalline Matrix
. . . . . . . . .A. Singh and A. P. Tsai 1353

5.4. Phase Transformations in Inorganic and Organic Materials

*Polymorphic Phase Transformations in Al2O3
. . . . . . . . .T. Gemming, D. R. Clarke and M. Ruhle 1357
Electronic and Magnetic Properties of (La-Dy)1−y AyMnO3(A; Ca2+(y = 0.3), Sr2+ (y= 0.5))
. . . . . . . . .T. Terai, T. Kakeshita, T. Fukuda, T. Saburi, N. Takamoto, K. Kindo and M. Honda 1365
Phase Separation and Magnetic Flux Pinning in Nd123 Superconductor
. . . . . . . . .K. Osamura, S. Miyata, J. Suzuki, K. Kuroda and N. Koshizuka 1369
Nonlinear Susceptibility and Resistivity at the Intergrain Ordering of Superconductive Ceramics
. . . . . . . . .M. Matsuura, M. Hagiwara and T. Yamao 1373
*Solid-Solid Phase Transformation in Soft Matters: Thermoreversible Transformation between BCC-Spheres and Hexagonal Cylinders in Block Copolymers
. . . . . . . . .T. Hashimoto, K. Kimishima and T. Koga 1377
Electron Microscopic Studies of Phase Transformations in Rapidly Solidified Ceramics
. . . . . . . . .K. Kuroda, T. Takeuchi and H. Saka 1385
Anisotropic Feature of Antiphase Domain Boundaries in Tetragonal Zirconia
. . . . . . . . .N. Shibata, J. Katamura, Y. Ikuhara and T. Sakuma 1389
On the Coalescence, Twinning and Solid Solution of CeO2-ZrO2 Condensates
. . . . . . . . .W.-H. Lee and P. Shen 1393
Phase Transition of (Nb, Sm)AlO3
. . . . . . . . .H. Horiuchi, A. Saitow, M. Tanaka, S. Toetsu, A. Yoshikawa, T. Fukuda and T. Mizota 1397
Effect Of Zr4+ and Y3+ Dissolution on Spinel Formation from Co1−xO
. . . . . . . . .K.-T. Lin and P. Shen 1401
Exsolution of Monoclinic Iron Zirconate in Fe2O3−x Oversaturated with Zr4+
. . . . . . . . .M.-L. Wu, P. Shen and D. Gan 1405
Ordering/Displacive Phase Transformations in Ca4Nb2O9
. . . . . . . . .I. Levin, L. A. Bendersky, R. S. Roth and T. A. Vanderah 1409
Formation of Gradient Structures in Cemented Carbides
. . . . . . . . .M. Ekroth and J. Agren 1413
Mesoscopic Phase Transformation in In2Te3 Compound Semiconductor
. . . . . . . . .S. Abe, Y. Nakamura and O. Nittono 1417
Conversion of Dry Gels to Zeolites
. . . . . . . . .M. Matsukata, P. R. H. P. Rao, T. Osaki, M. Ogura and E. Kikuchi 1421
Crystalline Phase Control of ZnS Nanocrystallites by Surface Modification with Organic Molecules
. . . . . . . . .K. Murakoshi, H. Hosokawa and S. Yanagida 1425
Phase Transitions in Nylon Crystals
. . . . . . . . .H. Ishikawa, T. Itoh and M. Hashimoto 1429
Phase Transformation Seen through “Millikelvin-Stabilized Cell”---Detection of “Multistage Transformation” in a Small Temperature Range
. . . . . . . . .K. Tozaki, Y. Yoshimura, A. Kojima, C. Ishii, O. Izuhara, K. Yamada, S. Koyama and H. Iwasaki 1433
Phase Transformation of C60 Doped into Ceramics and Metals
. . . . . . . . .K. Miyazawa, J. Yano, Y. Kawazoe, T. Kuzumaki, I. Honma, M. Akaishi and K. Ito 1437
A Review of Some Solid-Solid Transformations in Geology
. . . . . . . . .B. Guy 1441

VI. Phase Transformations in Industrial Alloys

6.1. Phase Transformations in Steels
*Kinetics of Simultaneous Transformations
. . . . . . . . .H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia 1445
*Solute-Drag(-Like) Effects on the Growth of Ferrite in Fe-C-X Alloys
. . . . . . . . .M. Enomoto, M. Kagayama, N. Maruyama and T. Tarui 1453
Analysis of the Solute Drag-Like Effect on Thickening Kinetics of Grain Boundary Ferrite Allotriomorphs in Fe-C-Mo Alloys
. . . . . . . . .G. R. Purdy, W. T. Reynolds, Jr. and H. I. Aaronson 1461
Solute Drag Effect on Moving Phase Interface during Diffusional Transformation of Fe-X-C
. . . . . . . . .M. Suehiro 1465
Three Dimensional Reconstruction and Classification of Ferrite Precipitates
. . . . . . . . .G. Spanos and M. V. Kral 1469
Microstructural Modelling of Austempered Ductile Iron
. . . . . . . . .J. S. James and R. C. Thomson 1473
Formation of Acicular Ferrite in C-Mn Steels Promoted by Vanadium Alloying Addition
. . . . . . . . .M. Zhang, K. He and D. V. Edmonds 1477
The Formation of Abnormal Ferrite in Hyper-eutectoid Steels
. . . . . . . . .D. V. Edmonds and T. Chairuangsri 1481
Transformation Kinetics of a High Silicon Austempered Ductile Iron
. . . . . . . . .J. Mallia, M. Grech and R. E. Smallman 1485
Orientation Relationships between Ferrite and Cementite in Steels
. . . . . . . . .M.-X. Zhang and P. M. Kelly 1489
On the Growth Morphology of Widmanstatten Cementite in Steels
. . . . . . . . .F. A. Khalid and D. V. Edmonds 1493
Relating the Crystrallography and Morphology of Proeutectoid Widmanstatten Cementite Precipitates
. . . . . . . . .M. V. Kral, M. A. Mangan and G. Spanos 1497
Influence of Ferrite Volume Fraction, Grain Size and Chemical Compositions on Pearlite Transformation Behavior in Si-Containing Low Carbon Steel
. . . . . . . . .Y. Takahashi, O. Kawano and J. Wakita 1501
Rapid Austenitization of an 0.7C Spheroidized Steel
. . . . . . . . .R. Taillard and W. Kaluba 1505
Dissolution of Cementite into Austenite during Ultra Rapid Heating
. . . . . . . . .M. Umemoto, Z. G. Liu, K. Tsuchiya, Y. Kusunoki, Y. Misaka and K. Kawasaki 1509

6.2. Phase Decomposition and Precipitation in Steels

TEM Characterisation of Microstructures Formed in Discontinuously Cooled C-Mn-Si(-Nb) Steels
. . . . . . . . .E. V. Pereloma, I. B. Timokhina and P. D. Hodgson 1513
Bainite Transformation of Deformed Austenite in Low Carbon Steels
. . . . . . . . .K. Fujiwara, S. Okaguchi and H. Ohtani 1517
Austenite Decomposition Kinetics in Advanced Low Carbon Steels
. . . . . . . . .M. Militzer 1521
Deformation Induced Ferrite Transformation from Unstable Austenite
. . . . . . . . .J. Y. Cho, D. W. Suh and H.-C. Lee 1525
Ferrite Transformation Behavior during Heavy Deformation in Plain Low Carbon Steels
. . . . . . . . .D.-H. Seo, S. W. Lee and W. Y. Choo 1529
Effects of Strain Rate and Deformation Temperature on Fine Ferrite Grain Structure Formed from Heavily Deformed Austenite
. . . . . . . . .S. Torizuka, O. Umezawa, K. Nagai, K. Tsuzaki, S. Genda and Y. Kogo 1533
Orientational Morphology of Low Carbon Steel Rolled in Nonrecrystallized Austenite Region
. . . . . . . . .S. Matsuoka, K. Sakata, O. Furukimi and T. Obara 1537
Local Approach for Phase Transformation Modelling Applied to Hot Rolled Steels
. . . . . . . . .T. Iung, D. Grandemange, M. Kandel and H. Tsukahara 1541
Effect of New Heat Treatments on the Mechanical Properties of Low Alloy High Strength Steels
. . . . . . . . .A. R. Mirak and M. N. Ahmadabadi 1545
Microstructural Characteristics of Cementite in Tempered Martensite Derived from Strain-Hardened Austenite
. . . . . . . . .T. Hara, S. Yusa and K. Tsuzaki 1549
Precipitation Hysteresis of Ti4C2S2 in Titanium Interstitial-Free Steels
. . . . . . . . .R. A. Hubert, G. Dupuis and R. Taillard 1553
Characterization of Clustering in IF Steels by Thermodynamic Response Measurements
. . . . . . . . .S. Saimoto, J. N. A. Starling, B. J. Diak, J. D. Boyd 1557
An Analytical Transmission Electron Microscope Study of Inclusions in C-Mn Steel Weld Metals
. . . . . . . . .E. S. K. Menon, M. Saunders, J. Walters, A. G. Fox and G. M. Evans 1561
Thermo-Chemical-Mechanical Effects on Microstructure Development in Low-Alloy Steel Welds
. . . . . . . . .S. S. Babu, S. A. David and J. M. Vitek 1565
Effect of Uniformly Dispersed Oxide Precipitates on Enhancement of Intragranular Ferrite Formation in Heat Affected Zone of Welding Steels
. . . . . . . . .H. Nakajima, K. Nagai, K. Tsuzaki and S. Torizuka 1569
Quantification of Inclusion-Stimulated Ferrite Nucleation in Wrought Steel using the SEM-EBSD Technique
. . . . . . . . .C. van der Eijk, Q. Grong and J. Hjelen 1573
Formation of a Subnanostructured Phase Near a Crack in a Steel Subjected to Rolling Contact Fatigue under Severe Conditions
. . . . . . . . .A. Muroga, T. Yasui and H. Saka 1577

6.3. Microstructure in Special Steels

*Directional Solidification and Solid State Transformation in an Fe-Cr Alloy
. . . . . . . . .W. Kurz and M. Lima 1581
On the Formation of σ -Phase in Austenitic Stainless Steels
. . . . . . . . .M. Schwind and J. Agren 1589
Strain Hardening and Uniform Elongation of 18% Ni 350 Grade Maraging Steel
. . . . . . . . .M. Farooque, A. ul Haq and A. Q. Khan 1593
Martensitic Transformation Induced by Precipitation of Vanadium Carbide in Austenitic Steel
. . . . . . . . .Y. Haruna, T. Morishita, A. Yamamoto and H. Tsubakino 1597
Microstructure and Strengthening Mechanism of Cu Bearing High Cr Martensitic Steels
. . . . . . . . .Y. Futamura, T. Tsuchiyama and S. Takaki 1601
Phase Transformations in AISI 410 Stainless Steel
. . . . . . . . .J. R. Yang, M. C. Tsai, J. S. Du and Y. J. Lin 1605
Studies of Phase Transformations Occuring in Conventional, Low Activation (LA) and Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) 7-11%Cr-(Mo, W, V, Nb, Ta) Martensitic Steels
. . . . . . . . .J.-C. Brachet, V. Lambard and A. Alamo 1609
Variants of M23C6 Type Carbide Precipitate in Deformed High Chromium Martensitic Steel
. . . . . . . . .T. Tsuchiyama and S. Takaki 1613
Stability of γ Phase and Mechanical Properties in Low Carbon-13Cr-Ni-Mo-Cu Steel
. . . . . . . . .G. Shigesato, M. Sugiyama, T. Hara and H. Asahi 1617
Austenite Formation and Stability in 9-12% Chromium Steels with Microduplex Structure
. . . . . . . . .U. E. Klotz, P. Ernst, P. J. Uggowitzer and M. O. Speidel 1621
Microstructure Formation in δ /γ Duplex Phase Stainless Steel during Isothermal Ageing and Continuous Heating
. . . . . . . . .S. Kobayashi, K. Nakai and Y. Ohmori 1625
Effect of Austenite Destabilisation Heat Treatment on Graphite Precipitation in Chromium Iron
. . . . . . . . .J. Lecomte-Beckers, L. Terziev and J. P. Breyer 1629
Surface Hardening of 18%Ni 350 Grade Maraging Steel
. . . . . . . . .S. Qaisar, M. Farooque, A. ul Haq and A. Q. Khan 1633
High Temperature Sulphidation of Commercial Cr-Mn Steel in H2/H2S at 1073-1273 K
. . . . . . . . .Z. Zurek, J. Laskawiec, M. Danielewski and M. Hetmanczyk 1637
Reversion from Eutectoid Structure to Austenite in High Manganese Austenitic Steels
. . . . . . . . .Y. Ono, T. Tsuchiyama and S. Takaki 1641
Precipitation Sequences of γ ' , ε and η Phases in Fe-Ni-Co-Nb Based Superalloys
. . . . . . . . .K. Kusabiraki, H. Toda, H. Komatsu and S. Saji 1645
Nano-Crystalline Structure Formation in Mechanically Milled 304L Steel by Reversion of Deformation-Induced Martensite
. . . . . . . . .R. Ishibashi, T. Kamino, T. Abe and Y. Aono 1649
Application of Magnetic Transformation to Implant Materials for Hyperthermia of Cancer
. . . . . . . . .T. Shimizu and M. Matsui 1653

Reports of Discussions in Focus Groups

Focus Groups
. . . . . . . . .T. Mohri 1659
Modeling Phase Separation in Coherent Alloys with Elastic Misfit
. . . . . . . . .P. Fratzl 1661
Time Evolution and Precursor Phenomena Related to Displacive Transformation
. . . . . . . . . .T. Kakeshita 1663
On Bridging the Gap between <i>ab initio Phase Diagram Calculations and Empirical Thermodynamic Assessments
. . . . . . . . .S. G. Fries 1665
Application of Advanced Small-Angle Scattering Techniques to Phase Transformation Phenomenon
. . . . . . . . .K. Osamura 1668
Atomistic and Phase Field Simulations of Materials Evolution and Properties
. . . . . . . . .P. E. A. Turchi 1671
Phase Transformation in Extreme Conditions Learned from Geology
. . . . . . . . .B. Guy 1674

Author Index

. . . . . . . . . 1677

Subject Index

. . . . . . . . . 1683