JIMIC-4

Porous Metals
and
Metal Foaming Technology
MetFoam2005

Edited by
Hideo Nakajima and Naoyuki Kanetake

The Japan Institute of Metals

Copyright©2006 The Japan Institute of Metals
All rights reserved
Pubished by The Japan Institute of Metals
1-14-32, Ichibancho, Aobaku, Sendai 980-8544, Japan
Publication date February 28, 2006
Printed in Japan



Contents

APPLICATIONS AND INDUSTRIALIZATION

Automobile and aerospace

Improving Structural Crashworthiness Using Metallic Foams ............  1
G. Rausch, K. Stöbener

Space Applications for Highly Porous Materials ............  5
J. Baumeister, D. Labuhn, L. Pambaguian

Aluminium Foam Sandwich (AFS), Developments Driven by Customer Related Enhancements ............  9
H.-W. Seeliger

Production & Fabrication Technology Development of Aluminum Useful for Automobile
Lightweighting
............  13
K. Ito, H. Kobayashi

Iron Based Cellular Structures—Status and Prospects ............  21
G. Stephani, O. Andersen, H. Göhler, C. Kostmann, K. Kümmel, P. Quadbeck, M. Reinfried, T. Studnitzky, U. Waag

Heat sink

Development of Lotus-Type Porous Copper Heat Sink ............  27
T. Ogushi, H. Chiba, H. Nakajima

Heat Transfer Capacity of Lotus-type Porous Copper Heat Sink ............  35
H. Chiba, T. Ogushi, H. Nakajima

Experimental Analysis of Multiphase Flow in Metallic Foam: Impact of Structure on Flow Properties ............  41
F. Topin, J.-P. Bonnet, L. Tadrist

Biomaterials

Biocompatibility of Lotus-type Porous Metals in Alveolar Bone ............  47
Y. Higuchi, Y. Ohashi, H. Nakajima

Effects of Extended Pore Direction and Stress Shielding on Biological Apatite Texture as
Bone Quality after Insertion of Metallic Implants with and without Pores
............  51
T. Nakano, T. Kan, T. Ishimoto, Y. Ohashi, Y. Umakoshi, T. Hattori, Y. Higuchi, M. Tane, H. Nakajima

Porous Titanium Compacts as Biomaterials for Hard Tissue Replacement ............  55
Y. Sakamoto, K. Asaoka, M. Kon, T. Matsubara, K. Yoshida

Addition of Advanced Biocompatibility to a Porous Artificial Root ............  59
H. Nishikawa, T. Hayami, S. Hontsu, M. Kusunoki

Machine tools, burners and golf head

Machine Tools with Metal Foam ............  63
R. Neugebauer, T. Hipke

Application of Reticulated Metal Foam to Gas Fired Infrared Burners ............  69
E.J. Cookson, D.E. Floyd II

Manufacturing of Core of Golf Head by Applying Powder Metallurgy Route Method ............  73
K.Y. Liao, C.S. Kang, J.S. Shih

PHYSICS OF FOAMING

Metallic foams

Metal Foams: the Mystery of Stabilisation ............  75
J. Banhart

Processing Fundamentals of Fine Aluminum Foam Production from Liquid Metals ............  87
H. Nakae, K. Kadoi

Materials Issues in Foaming of Liquid Aluminium ............  95
A.A. Gokhale, S.N. Sahu, V.K.W.R. Kulkarni, B. Sudhakar, N.R. Rao

Effects of SiC Addition on Foaming Behavior and Mechanical Properties of AlSi7-TiH2 Powder Compacts ............  101
S. Esmaeelzadeh, A. Simchi, D. Lehmhus

Zirconium Hydride—a Possible Blowing Agent for Making Aluminum Alloy Foams ............  107
B. Matijasevic, O. Görke, H. Schubert, J. Banhart

Foaming Behavior of Precursors Made of Various Kinds of Al Alloy Powder ............  111
M. Ota, M. Kobashi, N. Kanetake

Foaming Characteristics of Al-Mg Alloy Foam ............  115
S.Y. Kim, K.H. Kang, Y.S. Um, B.Y. Hur

Rheology of the Al and Mg Alloys for Manufacturing Metal Foam ............  119
S.-H. Park, Y.-S. Um, S.-Y. Kim, B.-Y. Hur

Influence of Alloying Additions on Foaming Behaviour of Thixocast AlSi11 Precursor ............  123
J. Weise, O. Marchetto, M. Haesche, F. Garcia-Moreno, J. Banhart

The Role of the Gas Pressure on the Foaming of Metals Following the PM-route ............  129
F. Garcia-Moreno, N. Babcsan, J. Banhart

Optimising Process Strategies for Fraunhofer type Al-foams using Kinetic Analysis of Foaming Agent Variants ............  133
D. Lehmhus, M. Wichmann

The Effect of Compaction Method on the Expansion and Stability of Aluminium Foams ............  139
S. Asavavisithchai, A. Kennedy

An Introduction on Acquiring Kinetics Parameters of Titanium Hydride from Its TPD Spectrum ............  145
D.H. Yang, S.R. Yang, B.Y. Hur

Non-metallic foams

Foaming of Protein Stabilized Metal Powder Slurries ............  149
J. Babcsán-Kiss, A. Berthold, N. Babcsán, H. Schubert

PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES FOR POROUS AND FOAMED METALS

Foaming of powder compacts

A New Generation of Materials and Their Production Methods ............  153
P. Schäffler

Advanced Pore Morphology (APM) Metal Foam—Process and Characteristics ............  157
K. Stöbener, J. Baumeister, G. Rausch

Three Dimensional Metallic Honeycomb Structure ............  161
M. Reinfried, U. Waag, G. Stephani, B. Kieback

Solid-state Foaming of Magnesium Alloys ............  165
C. Wen, M.R. Barnett, J. Vella, Y. Yamada

Foaming and Filling-in Behavior of Porous Aluminum in Hollow Components ............  169
M. Kobashi, R. Sato, N. Kanetake
Effect of Densification under Uni-Axial Compaction on Foaming Behavior of PM Precursors ............  173
L. Bonaccorsi, E. Proverbio
Effects of Processing Parameters on Pore Morphology of Combustion Synthesized Al-Ni Foams ............  177
N. Kanetake, M. Kobashi, R.-X. Wang

Modeling of Solid-State Foaming in Titanium ............  181
S.M. Openheimer, D.C. Dunand

Cell Structure Control of Porous Titanium Composite Synthesized by Combustion Reaction ............  185
M. Kobashi, K. Kuze, N. Kanetake

Processing Technology for High Porosity Closed Cell Metal Foam ............  191
T. Shimizu, K. Matsuzaki

Structure Development in Aluminum Foam Manufactured by Hot Rolling ............  195
S. Vatchiants, N. Manukyan

Foaming of melts

Replication (a.k.a. Space-holder) Processing of Highly Porous Materials ............  199
Y. Conde, J.-F. Despois, R. Goodall, A. Marmottant, L. Salvo, C.S. Marchi, A. Mortensen

Replicated Microcellular Aluminium with Spherical Pores ............  207
R. Goodall, A. Marmottant, J.-F. Despois, L. Salvo, A. Mortensen

Fabrication of Lotus-type Porous Metals by Continuous Zone Melting and Continuous Casting Techniques ............  211
S.-K. Hyun, J.-S. Park, M. Tane, H. Nakajima

Fabrication of Lotus-type Porous Carbon Steel by Unidirectional Solidification in Nitrogen Atmosphere ............  215
M. Kashihara, H. Yonetani, T. Kobi, S.-K. Hyun, H. Nakajima

Casting and Mechanical Properties of Lotus-type Porous Hastelloy X ............  219
K. Taguchi, M. Sato, A. Mizuta, Y. Matsuzaki, S.K. Hyun, H. Nakajima

Fabrication of Lotus-type Porous Silver by Unidirectional Solidification in Oxygen Atmosphere ............  223
T. Nakahata, S.-K. Hyun, H. Nakajima

Fabrication of Lotus-type Porous Ni3Al by Unidirectional Solidification ............  229
T. Ide, M. Tane, S.-K. Hyun, H. Nakajima

Fabrication of Lotus-type Porous NiTi Shape Memory Alloys ............  233
M. Sugiyama, S.K. Hyun, M. Tane, H. Nakajima

Effects of Processing Condition on Structure of Regular Porous Metals Fabricated by
Directional Solidification
............  237
Y. Li, Y. Liu, H. Zhang, X. Wang

Some Theoretical Problems in Metal-Gas Eutectic Unidirectional Growth ............  241
Y. Liu, Y. Li, J. Wan, H. Zhang

Fabrication of Lotus-type Porous Silicon by Unidirectional Solidification in Mixture Gas
of Hydrogen and Argon
............  247
T. Nakahata, S.-K. Hyun, H. Nakajima

Fabrication of Lotus-type Porous Alumina by Unidirectional Solidification ............  251
S. Ueno, L.M. Lin, S.K. Hyun, H. Nakajima

Current Activities and New Technologies of Aluminum Foam by Melt Route ............  255
T. Miyoshi, S. Nishi, S. Furuta, T. Hamada, K. Yoshikawa

Role of Oxidation during Blowing of Aluminium Foams by External Gas Injection ............  261
N. Babcsán, F. Garcia-Moreno, J. Banhart

Influence of Viscosity on Foamability of Aluminum Melts ............  267
K. Kadoi, M. Tayama, M. Yoshida, H. Nakae

Progress in Aluminium Foaming Technology: Application of Calcium Carbonate as Foaming
Agent for Alporas and Powder Compact Techniques
............  273
A. Byakova, A. Sirko, K. Mykhalenkov, Y. Milman, S. Gnyloskurenko, T. Nakamura

Integral Foam Moulding of Light Metals ............  279
C. Körner, M. Hirschmann, H. Wiehler

A New Technique for Formation of Porous Metallic Materials by Using Metal Films ............  285
A. Watazu, T. Sonoda, K. Kato, T. Yamada, T. Asahina, N. Saito

Fabrication of Porous Media with a High Aspect Ratio by Solidification of Monotectic Alloys
under a Magnetic Field
............  289
H. Yasuda, I. Ohnaka, B.K. Dhindaw, N. Takezawa, S. Fujimoto, T. Nagira, A. Tsuchiyama,
T. Nakano, K. Uesugi

Fabrication of Open Cell Metal Foam Using Polymer Foam ............  293
S. Hongmin, B.-K. Park, B.-Y. Hur

Sintering and other methods

Adjusting the Pore Structure of Open Porous Metallic Foams Produced by the Slip Reaction Foam
Sintering (SRFS)—Process
............  295
S. Angel, W. Bleck, P.-F. Scholz

Porous Metals Using Polyurethane Foam Template ............  301
K. Harada, A. Yamakawa

Density-Graded Aluminum Foams ............  305
A.H. Brothers, D.C. Dunand

Production of Micro Porous Metal Components by Metal Injection Molding Based Powder
Space Holder Method
............  311
K. Nishiyabu, S. Matsuzaki, S. Tanaka

Superior Nickel Foam Production: Starting from Raw Materials Quality Control ............  317
V. Paserin, J. Shu, S. Marcuson

Preparation of Metallic Porous Materials by Oxidation-Reduction Liquid Sintering
of Fe-SnO2 Mixture
............  321
T. Takahashi

Effectiveness of Micro Porous Metal Components with Functionally Graded Structures ............  325
K. Nishiyabu, S. Matsuzaki, S. Tanaka

Advanced Metal Powder Injection Molding for Multilayered Micro Porous
Titanium Components
............  329
K. Nishiyabu, S. Matsuzaki, S. Tanaka

Cell Structure Control of Porous Material Made of Steel Fiber by Imposition of a Static
Magnetic Field
............  333
Y. Chino, K. Sassa, Y. Yamada, M. Hakamada, M. Mabuchi, S. Asai

Technology of Producing Aluminum Foam from Machined Chips ............  337
S. Tsuda, M. Kobashi, N. Kanetake

The Spark Plasma Sintering Method using Laminated Titanium Powder Sheet for Fabricating
Porous Biocompatible Implants
............  341
K. Maekawa, T. Hayashi, K. Hanyu, K. Umeda, T. Murakami

Fabrication Method for Metallic Closed Cellular Materials ............  345
S. Kishimoto, N. Shinya

Superplastic Forming and Foaming Process of Aluminum Alloy Foams ............  349
K. Kitazono, S. Kamimura, E. Sato, K. Kuribayashi

Cell Morphology of Closed-Cell Magnesium Foam Manufactured by Bulk Foaming Process ............  355
Y. Kikuchi, K. Kitazono, E. Sato, K. Kuribayashi

Powder-Metallurgical Process for Fabricating Metallic Microchannel Devices ............  359
T. Ohmi, M. Takatoo, M. Iguchi, K. Matsuura, M. Kudoh

Unusual Wetting of Liquid Metals in Porous Thin Layer Formed on Iron Substrate ............  365
N. Takahira, T. Tanaka

Processing and Characterization of a New Composite Metal Foam ............  369
A. Rabiei, L. Vendra, N. Reese, N. Young, B. Neville

Pressure Sintering of Metallic Hollow Sphere Compacts: Experiment and Simulation ............  375
K. Shinagawa, H. Yoshimura, Y. Mihara, Y. Sukegawa, K. Murakami

Metallic Hollow Sphere Structure Bonded by Adhesion ............  381
H. Yoshimura, K. Shinagawa, Y. Mihara, Y. Sukegawa, K. Murakami

New Methods for Fabricating Truss Periodic Cellular Metals Using Wires ............  387
J.-H. Lim, J.-G. Jung, J.-D. Lim, K.-J. Kang

Processing of Porous Aluminum by the Spacer Method ............  393
M. Hakamada, T. Nomura, T. Kuromura, Y. Yamada, M. Mabuchi


CHARACTERIZATION AND PROPERTIES

Characterization of structures by tomography and image analysis

The Structure of Random Foam ............  397
A.M. Kraynik

Structural Properties Measurement: A Morphological Analysis Tool for Transport Properties
Determination
............  403
J. Vicente, F. Topin, L. Tadrist

Image-Based Mechanical Analysis of Dynamic Deformation and Damage Behaviors in an
Aluminium Foam Using Synchrotron X-Ray Microtomography
............  409
H. Toda, N. Kuroda, T. Ohgaki, M. Kobayashi, T. Akahori, M. Niinomi, T. Kobayashi, K. Uesugi, K. Makii, Y. Aruga

In-situ X-ray Tomography Investigation of Replicated Aluminium Foams: Quantitative
Analysis of Localisation Using 3D Strain Mapping
............  415
A. Marmottant, J.-F. Despois, L. Salvo, E. Maire, M. Bornert, A. Mortensen

Characterisation of Aluminium Foams Using X-Ray Computed Tomography ............  419
Y. Yamada, T. Banno, Z. Xie, C. Wen

Measurement of Pore Length of Lotus-type Porous Nickel ............  423
H. Onishi, S.-K. Hyun, H. Nakajima

Elastic properties

Elastic Response of Titanium Foams During Compression Tests and Under Laser-Ultrasonic
Probing
............  427
L.-P. Lefebvre, A. Blouin, S.-M. Rochon, M.N. Bureau

Calculation Methods on Young's Modulus of Closed-cell Foams ............  433
Y.S. Um, B.Y. Hur, H. Arai

In Situ-Formed Porous Titanium Alloys ............  437
G. He, M. Hagiwara

Deformation and energy absorption

Space-filling Polyhedra as Mechanical Models for Solidified Dry Foams ............  441
T. Daxner, R.D. Bitsche, H.J. Böhm

A New Material Model for Cellular Aluminium ............  447
M. Wicklein, K. Thoma

The Yield Function for Porous Materials with Cubic Symmetry ............  453
A.H. Wilkins, A.P. Roberts, D.L.S. McElwain

Experimental Techniques for Investigation of the Elasto-Plastic Transition Zone of
Porous Materials
............  457
A. Öchsner, T. Fiedler, J. Grácio, G. Kuhn

Yield Strength of Lotus-type Porous Iron Fabricated under Hydrogen or Nitrogen Atmosphere ............  463
M. Tane, T. Ichitsubo, S.-K. Hyun, H. Nakajima

Compressive Behavior of Cubic Spherical FE Model with Different Wall Thickness
Ratio for Al-Alloy Foams
............  467
K. Tunvir, A. Kim, S.-S. Cheon

Design of Energy Absorbing Device Based on Shape Memory Alloys ............  473
Y. Zhao, M. Taya

Experimental Characterisation of the Deformation in Hollow Sphere Structures ............  479
O. Friedl, C. Motz, J. Färber, M. Stoiber, R. Pippan

A Study on the Mechanism of Strength Enhancement under Impact Loading of Cellular
Materials
............  483
H. Zhao, S. Abdennadher, I. Elnasri

Material Models for Deformation and Fracture Behaviour of Aluminium Foams ............  489
D.-Z. Sun, F. Andrieux

Structure of Aluminium Foams and Relation to Mechanical Properties ............  495
U. Martin, U. Mosler, D. Lehmhus, A. Müller, G. Heinzel

Fabrication and Mechanical Properties of Open-cell Al-Si Foam ............  499

B.-K. Park, S.-Y. Kim, Y.-S. Um, B.-Y. Hur

Effect of Processing Route on Energy Management of Foamed Al Alloys ............  503
Y. Milman, A. Byakova, Y. Podrezov, D. Verbilo, T. Nakamura, S. Gnyloskurenko

Improving the Mechanical Response of Aluminium Foams in Compression by Using
Internal Reinforcements
............  509
E. Solórzano, M.A. Rodríguez-Pérez, J.A. Reglero, J.A. de Saja

Structural and Dynamical Evaluation of Highly Porous Aluminum Material Prepared
by Space-Holder Method
............  513
T. Asahina, I. Jeon, K. Kato, T. Sonoda, Y. Yamada

Effect of the Matrix Strength on the Energy Absorption in Aluminum Foam ............  517
Y. Aruga, K. Makii, T. Miyoshi, S. Nishi

Aluminium Foams as a Filler for Leading Edges: Bird Strike Damage Tests ............  521
M.A. Rodríguez-Pérez, E. Solórzano, J.A. de Saja, J.A. Reglero, E. Porras, A. Fernández

Mechanical Properties of Lotus-type Porous Carbon Steel by Continuous Zone Melting Method ............  525
T. Kujime, S.-K. Hyun, H. Nakajima

Tensile Properties of Lotus-type Porous Copper: Effect of Specimen Dimensions ............  529
H. Sueno, M. Tane, J.-S. Park, S.-K. Hyun, H. Nakajima

Dynamic Strength in Uniaxial Compression of Closed Cell Aluminum Foam ............  533
T. Hamada, H. Kanahashi

Energy Absorption of Cellular Aluminum Alloys at High Strain Rates ............  539
T. Mukai

Crushing Behaviour and Mechanical Properties of Foam-Filled Circular Aluminium Tubes ............  543
T. Banno, Z. Xie, Y. Yamada, C. Wen

The Effects of Inhomogeneity on the Buckling Behavior of Metal Foams ............  547
F. Adziman, T. Dirgantara, H. Inoue, K. Kishimoto, T. Hashimura

Effect of Applied-Stress Direction on Compressive Properties of Lotus-type Porous Stainless Steel ............  551
T. Ide, M. Tane, T. Ikeda, S.-K. Hyun, H. Nakajima

Relationship between Specimen Size and Compressive Yield Strength of Lotus-type Porous Copper ............  555
J.-S. Park, H. Sueno, S.-K. Hyun, M. Tane, H. Nakajima, Y.-S. Um, B.-Y. Hur, F. Ono

Fracture and fatigue

Isothermal and Thermomechanical Fatigue Behavior of Open-Cell Metal Sponges ............  559
U. Krupp, A. Ohrndorf, T. Guillén, H.-J. Christ, S. Demiray, W. Becker, J. Hohe

Assessment of Fatigue Behaviour of Aluminium Foams by Synchrotron X-ray Microtomography ............  565
T. Ohgaki, H. Toda, M. Kobayashi, K. Uesugi, T. Kobayashi, M. Niinomi, T. Akahori, K. Makii, Y. Aruga

Compression Characteristics of Metallic Hollow Spheres with Pipe Overcoat ............  571
Y. Sukegawa, U. Waag, K. Murakami, H. Yoshimura, K. Shinagawa, Y. Mihara

Mechanical Properties of Porous Aluminum Fabricated by the Spacer Method ............  577
M. Hakamada, Y. Yamada, T. Nomura, T. Kuromura, M. Mabuchi

Fatigue of Porous Aluminum Fabricated by the Spacer Method ............  581
M. Hakamada, Y. Yamada, T. Kuromura, M. Mabuchi

Fatigue Behavior of Lotus-type Porous Copper ............  585
S. Sasaki, H. Seki, S. Yamazaki, T. Yasuno, M. Otsuka, M. Murakami, S.K. Hyun, M. Tane, H. Nakajima

Fracture Behavior of Metal Foam Made of Recycled MMC by the Melt Route ............  589
E. Amsterdam, N. Babcsán, J.T.M. De Hosson, P.R. Onck, J. Banhart

Mechanical Properties for Porous Al2O3/Al Composite Fabricated by an
Al(OH)3/Al mixture
............  593
Y. Tanaka, Z.-Y. Deng, Y. Kagawa

Sound absorption, thermal conductivity and others

Electrical Conductivity of Lotus-type Porous Nickel: Measurements and Effective-Mean-Field Theory ............  597
M. Tane, S.-K. Hyun, H. Nakajima

Steady-State Thermal Characteristics of Transpiration Cooling System Using Open-Cellular
Porous Materials in a Radiative Environment
............  601
K. Kamiuto, K. Unoki, J. Andou

Sound Absorption of Lotus-type Porous Magnesium ............  607
Z.-K. Xie, Y. Yamada, T. Banno, S.-K. Hyun, M. Tane, Y. Okuda, H. Nakajima

Vibration-Damping of Lotus-type Porous Magnesium ............  611
Z.-K. Xie, Y. Yamada, T. Banno, M. Tane, S.-K. Hyun, H. Nakajima

Tribological Behaviour of Lotus-type Porous Metal ............  615
T. Kato, T. Nakahata, H. Nakajima

Development of Sub-micron Structure Porous Metals by Nanoscale Powder Space Holder Method ............  619
K. Nishiyabu, S. Matsuzaki, S. Tanaka

Effect of Dissolved Hydrogen on Corrosion Behavior of Lotus-type Porous Stainless Steel ............  623
M. Fuseya, T. Nakahata, S.-K. Hyun, S. Fujimoto, H. Nakajima

Mechanical and Sound Absorption Properties of Mineral Wool and Al Foam Sandwich Board ............  627
K.-H. Kang, S.-J. Park, Y.-S. Um, B.-Y. Hur


SECONDARY OPERATIONS

Joining

Ultrasonically Welded Aluminium Foams/Sheet Metal—Joints ............  631
C. Born, G. Wagner, D. Eifler

Techniques for Melt Support during Laser Welding of Aluminum Foam ............  635
H. Haferkamp, D. Herzog, A. Ostendorf, J. Bunte, O. Meier

On the Joining of Aluminum Foams and Aluminum Foam Sandwiches ............  639
L. Filice, L. Fratini, D. Umbrello

Joining Aluminium Foams by Using Adhesives ............  643
M.A. Rodríguez-Pérez, J.A. Reglero, E. Soló:rzano, E. Porras, A. Fernandez, J.A. de Saja

Numerical Simulation of Laser Fusion Zone Profile of Lotus-type Porous Metals ............  647
T. Tsumura, T. Murakami, H. Nakajima, K. Nakata

Laser Welding of Lotus-type Porous Iron ............  651
H. Yanagino, T. Tsumura, H. Nakajima, K. Nakata


Coating

Formation of Ceramic Coatings on Porous Metals by Electrophoretic Sol-Gel Deposition ............  655
M. Inoue, S.-K. Hyun, K. Suganuma, H. Nakajima


Surface modification

A Novel Surface Modification Process for Porous Metals using Friction Phenomena ............  659
Y.-J. Kwon, I. Shigematsu, N. Saito


NANOPOROUS METALS

An Overview on Characterization and Mechanical Behavior of Nanoporous Gold ............  663
A.M. Hodge, J.R. Hayes, J.A. Caro, J. Biener, A.V. Hamza

Preparation of Nanoporous Gold Film as a Nanofilter ............  667
H. Tanimoto, Y. Ishibashi, H. Mizubayashi