Contents



I. Keynote Lectures

Deformation Microstructure and Recrystallization Behavior

D. Juul Jensen .............................................................................................3

Integral Recrystallization Modeling: From Cellular Automata to Finite Element Analysis

G. Gottstein, V. Marx and R. Sebald ........................................................15

Characteristics of Nucleation and Growth during the Dynamic Recrystallization of a 304 Stainless Steel

Ph. Bocher and J. J. Jonas ...........................................................................25

Present State and Future Perspectives of Recrystallization Research in the Steel Industry

T. Senuma ....................................................................................................37

Effects of Orientation and Misorientation on the Recrystallization of Steels

B. Hutchinson, H. Magnusson and J-M. Feppon ........................................49

Recrystallization in High-Temperature Aluminides

M. Yamaguchi .............................................................................................59

Fine-Grained Alloys by Thermomechanical Processing

F. J. Humphreys, P. B. Prangnell and R. Priestner ....................................69

Effects of Interstitial and Substitutional Solute Elements on the Recrystallization Temperature of High Purity Titanium

C. Ouchi and H. Iizumi ...............................................................................79

Aspects on Grain Growth in Ceramics

T. Sakuma ....................................................................................................89

Grain Boundary Architecture through Microstructural Evolution in Material Systems

T. Watanabe .................................................................................................99



II. Mechanisms and Kinetics

Distributions of Low and High Angle Boundaries in Deformed Metals

D. A. Hughes (Invited paper) ....................................................................111

Deformation Microstructures in Cold-Rolled Austenitic Stainless Steel

T. Morikawa, K. Inoue, K. Higashida and R. Onodera .............................119

The Influence of Plastic Deformation on the Stored Energy and Microstructure of U-0.2wt%V Alloy

A. Ben-Artzy, D. Dayan, I. Dahan, G. Kimmel, E. Dabush and D. Eliezer ............................................................................................125

Influence of Kind and Quantity of Dislocations of Activated Slip Systems on Deformation and Recrystallization

F. Inoko, T. Okada, M. Tagami, and K. Kashihara ..................................131

Recrystallization Process of (α-Iron-Carbon Alloys Observed by Electron Microscopy

K. Ito and N. Yoshinaga .............................................................................137

Nucleation of Recrystallization Near Prior Grain Boundaries

S. J. Lillywhite, M. Aindow and P. S. Bate ................................................143

Static Recrystallization of Polycrystalline Copper After Warm and Hot Deformation

A. M. Wusatowska-Sarnek, H. Miura and T. Sakai ...................................149

Influence of the Heterogeneity of the Dislocation Density on the Inter- and Intragranular Nucleation of Recrystallization in Copper

G. Mohamed, B. Bacroix, J.-L. Lebrun and T. Ungar ...............................155

Effect of Grain Orientation on Deformation Structure and Recrystallization Behavior in Tensile Strained Copper

X. Huang, D. Juul Jensen and N. Hansen ..................................................161

Grain and Grain Boundary Microstructures in Molybdenum Polycrystals Recrystallized from Single Crystals with Different Orientations

S. Kobayashi, A. Kobylansky, T. Nagano, S. Tsurekawa and T. Watanabe ........................................................................................167

Static Recrystallization of Cold-Rolled Copper Single Crystals with Dispersed SiO2 Particles

H. Miura, T. Sakai, J. Verhasselt and G. Gottstein ...................................173

Particle Stimulated Nucleation Following Deformation at High Strain Rate and Temperature

N. Stanford and M. Ferry ..........................................................................179

Recrystallization Kinetics of AA3104 Deformed at Room and Elevated Temperatures

M. T. Lyttle and D. Juul Jensen .................................................................185

Recrystallization and Texture Development in the Sub-Surface of Rolled Aluminum Products

H. Magnusson, B. Hutchinson and L. Ryde ...............................................191

Recrystallization in Coarse-Grained Stainless Steels

T. Okada, W.-Y. Liu, T. Fukuoka, K. Takechi and F. Inoko .....................197

On the Rate Controlling Mechanisms for Recovery during Back Annealing of Aluminum Alloys

J. A. Soeter and E. Nes ...............................................................................203

Cube Texture Stability after High Temperature Plane Strain Compression of a Commercial Al-5Mg Alloy

R. D. Knutsen, F. J. Humphreys, S. A. Court and H-L. Yiu .......................209

ODF Analysis of Texture of 3004 Alloy Sheet

S. Urayoshi and R. Shouji ..........................................................................215



III. Microstructural Changes during Deformation

Effect of Inhomogeneous Deformation on Initiation of Dynamic Recrystallization

A. Manonukul and F. P. E. Dunne ............................................................223

Dynamic Recrystallization during Macroscopically Inhomogeneous Hot Deformation

E. I. Poliak and W. Y. Choo .......................................................................229

Dynamic Recrystallization in Austenitic Steel Alloy 800H

E. Brünger, X. Wang and G. Gottstein ......................................................235

The Role of Subgrain Coalescence in Dynamic Softening of Austenite in a Duplex Stainless Steel Deformed in Hot Torsion

P. Cizek ......................................................................................................241

Dynamic Recrystallization under Warm and Hot Deformation of a 304 Stainless Steel

A. Belyakov, T. Sakai, H. Miura and R. Kaibyshev ...................................247

Nucleation Condition of Dynamic Recrystallization in Ferritic Iron

N. Tsuji, Y. Saito and T. Maki ....................................................................253

A Model of "Continuous" Dynamic Recrystallization

S. Gourdet, C. Chovet and F. Montheillet ................................................259

On Occurrence of Dynamic Recrystallization in 7475 Aluminum Alloy

R. Kaibyshev, O. Sitdikov, A. Goloborod'ko, A. Belyakov and T. Sakai ...............................................................................................265

Influence of Dynamic Recrystallization on Superplastic Flow at High-Strain-Rate in PM 7475 Alloy

T. Hirata, T. Mukai, N. Saito, M. Kohzu, S. Tanabe and K. Higashi ........271

Dynamic Recrystallization of Nominally Pure Aluminum at Room Temperature

H. Jin, J. Li, B. J. Diak and S. Saimoto .....................................................277

Microstructural Evolution during Creep of Ni-Base Solid Solution Alloys and In-Situ Observation at High Temperature

Y. Kurata, H. Utsumi, K. Kikuchi, T. Suzuki and T. Miura .......................283

Coarsening Behavior of Martensite Laths in Tempered Martensitic 9Cr-W Steels during Creep Deformation

F. Abe ........................................................................................................289

Microstructure Change during Tempering of Lath Martensite in an Ultra Low Carbon Steel

S. Morito, H. Tanaka, T. Furuhara and T. Maki .......................................295

Equal-Channel Angular Pressing for Grain Refinement of Metallic Materials

Z. Horita, M. Furukawa, K. Oh-ishi, M. Nemoto and T. G. Langdon (Invited paper) ...........................................................301

Formation of Ultra-Fine Grains in Ferrous and Aluminum Alloys Highly Strained by the Accumulative Roll-Bonding (ARB)

N. Tsuji, Y. Saito, H. Utsunomiya and T. Sakai .........................................309

Microstructural Characterization of AA1200 Highly Strained by Cold-Rolling

Q. Liu, X. Huang, D. J. Lloyd and N. Hansen ...........................................315

Microstructural Control by Means of Continuous Cyclic Bending in a 5083 Aluminum Alloy

Y. Takayama, M. Yamaguchi, T. Tozawa, H. Kato, H. Watanabe and T. Izawa ..............................................................................................321

Thermomechanical Processing of High Strength High Conductive Cu-Base In-Situ Composite

K. Mihara, K. Adachi, S. Tsubokawa and H. G. Suzuki ............................327

Formation of Equiaxed Fine Ferrite Grain Structures through Warm Forging of Low Carbon Martensite

T. Hayashi, M. Saito, K. Tsuzaki and K. Nagai .........................................333

Substructure of Iron Subjected to Heavy Cold-Working through Mechanical Milling

Y. Kimura and S. Takaki ............................................................................339



IV. Textures

Formation of {111} Recrystallized Grains at Grain Boundaries in Bicrystals of an Fe-19%Cr Ferritic Alloy

K. Tsuzaki, M. Mitsuzono, H. Kobayashi and T. Maki (Invited paper) ....347

Recrystallization Texture of Cold Rolled 3%Si-Fe (100)[011] Single Crystal Related to Active Slip Systems

T. Toge, M. Muraki and T. Obara .............................................................355

A Novel Interpretation on Recrystallization Texture Emergence from Cold Rolled (111(//ND BCC Single Crystals

M. Muraki, T. Toge and T. Obara .............................................................361

Nucleation of Recrystallization in IF Steel

B. J. Duggan, G. L. Liu and Y. Y. Tse ........................................................367

On the Origin of (-Fiber Recrystallization Textures in Deep Drawing Quality Steels

B. Verlinden, I. Samajdar and P. Van Houtte ...........................................373

Experimental and Numerical Study of the Mechanisms of Recrystallization Texture Formation in IF Steels

A. Miroux, H. Regle and B. Bacroix ..........................................................379

Recrystallization during the Continuous Annealing of Cold Rolled IF Steel

A. J. DeArdo (Invited paper) ....................................................................385

Influence of Hot-Rolling Texture and Cold-Rolling Reduction on Planar Anisotropy of r-Values after Recrystallization of IF-Steels

N. Yoshinaga, L. Kestens, D. Vanderschueren, K. De Blauwe and B. C. De Cooman ................................................................................393

Effect of Boron Addition on Microstructure and Texture of Hot Rolled Ti-Bearing IF Steel Sheet

T. Sakai, Y. Hirai, N. Tsuji and Y. Saito .....................................................399

Effect of Boron on Mechanical Properties and Recrystallization Behavior of Titanium-Added Ultra-Low Carbon Cold-Rolled Steel Sheets

J. Haga, N. Mizui, T. Nagamichi and A. Okamoto ....................................405

Effect of Solute Carbon and Hot Band Microstructural Factors on Recrystallization Texture in Ti-Added Ultra-Low Carbon Cold-Rolled Sheet Steels

M. Miura, I. Tsukatani and Y. Okano ........................................................411

Development of Different Texture Components after Ferrite Rolling of an Ultra Low Carbon Steel

H. Réglé, J. L. Christen, L. Lesne, A. Miroux and Y. Raulet .....................417

{111} Texture Evolution during Cold Rolling and Recrystallization of IF Steel With a Strong {111} Hot Band Texture

K. Okuda, K. Sakata, K. Eloot, O. Furukimi and T. Obara .....................423



V. Grain Boundary Engineering

Grain Boundary and Triple Junction Migration - the Latest Advances

L. S. Shvindlerman and G. Gottstein (Invited paper) ...............................431

Grain Boundary Migration and Its Mechanism in Fe-Si Solid Solution Bicrystals

H. Nakashima (Invited paper) ..................................................................439

The Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Orientation Dependence of Boundary Mobility in Aluminum

Y. Huang and F. J. Humphreys ..................................................................445

Influence of External Shear Stresses on Grain Boundary Migration

M. Winning, G. Gottstein and L. S. Shvindlerman ....................................451

Effect of Dislocation Absorption on Grain Boundary Motion in Al-Bicrystals

P. Konijnenberg, D. A. Molodov, G. Gottstein and L. S. Shvindlerman ..............................................................................457

Grain Growth of Particle-Dispersed Structure and Dual-Phase Structure

I. Ohnuma, K. Ishida and T. Nishizawa (Invited paper) ...........................463

Texture Dependence of Grain Boundary Migration in Secondary Recrystallization in Silicon Iron

H. Homma and B. Hutchinson ...................................................................471

In-Situ Method to Measure Activation Energy of Grain Growth by X-Ray Diffraction

G. Langelaan, H. Jin, J. Hu and S. Saimoto ..............................................477

Austenite Grain Growth in a Low Carbon Si-Mn Steel with Ti Oxide Particles Formed through Solidification of Undercooled Molten Steel

H. Nakajima, N. Sakuma, K. Nagai, K. Tsuzaki and S. Torizuka .............483

Influence of Free Surface on Formation of Primary Recrystallized Grains in Pure Aluminum

K. Kashihara, M. Tagami, T. Okada and F. Inoko ...................................489

Thermal Stability of the Ultrafine Grain Structure in a Consolidated Product of Mechanically Milled Iron Powder

M. Ohtaguchi, K. Tsuzaki and K. Nagai ...................................................495

The Influence of Grain Junctions on the Interface Distribution after Recrystallization

V. Randle and P. Davies (Invited paper) ..................................................501

Dynamic Grain Growth Enhanced by Diffusion Mechanism during Superplastic Deformation of Ceramics

B.-N. Kim, K. Hiraga and Y. Sakka (Invited paper) .................................507

The Evolution of Microtexture and Grain Boundary Character during ECA Pressing of Pure Aluminum

S. D. Terhune, Z. Horita, M. Nemoto, Y. Li, T. G. Langdon and T. R. McNelley ....................................................................................515

Microstructure of <001> Σ:5 Asymmetric Tilt Boundaries in Molybdenum

K. Ikeda, M. Kitamura, K. Morita, H. Nakashima and H. Abe .................523

Grain Boundary Migration and Grain Growth during Sintering and Annealing in Magnetic Field in Iron and Its Alloy

T. Matsuzaki, T. Sasaki, S. Tsurekawa and T. Watanabe .........................529

Effect of Fe on Recrystallization of Zirconium

Y. S. Kim, M. H. Lee, S. C. Kwon and K. N. Choo ....................................535

Some Factors Deciding the Non-Sag Grain Structure of Doped Tungsten Fine Wires

K. Tanoue ..................................................................................................541

An Investigation on the Deformed Goss Bands in Fe-3% Si Grain Oriented Silicon Steel

I. Samajdar, S. Cicale, B. Verlinden and G. Abbruzzese ...........................547

Influence of Primary Recrystallization Texture on Secondary Recrystallization Texture in Fe-3%Si Alloy

K. Murakami, S. Nakamura, M. Ikeda and Y. Ushigami ...........................553

Role of Inhibitor in Secondary Recrystallization of Grain Oriented Silicon Steel

Y. Ushigami, K. Murakami and T. Kubota ................................................559

Time Effect of MnS Particles Precipitation in the Fe-3%Si Steel during Thermomechanical Processing

V. A. Rodrigues, W. A. Monteiro, A. M. S-Silva, N. A. M. Ferreira and L. C. E. Silva .......................................................................................565

Effects of High Magnetic Field on Recrystallization and Coarsening Behavior in Fe-Si Steels

Y. Xu, H. Ohtsuka, S. Umezawa, K. Anak, S. Miyazaki and H. Wada ......571



VI. Modeling and Simulation

Computer Simulation Models of Grain Growth

Y. Saito, M. Honjo and Y.Suwa (Invited paper) .......................................579

Characteristics of Growth-Disappearance of Grains in Nanostructured Materials (NSM)

Y. Yamazaki, T. Watanabe and J. Tani ......................................................587

Atomistic Simulations on the Effect of External Stresses on the Behavior of Tilt-Grain Boundaries

B. Schönfelder, G. Gottstein and L. S. Shvindlerman ...............................593

Computer Simulation of Grain Growth in Dual-Phase Structures

I. Ohnuma and K. Ishida ...........................................................................599

Computer Simulation of Grain Growth Oriented Toward Microstructural Image Data Base

M. Kobayashi, Y. Takayama, T. Tozawa and H. Kato ..............................605

Analysis of Grain Growth Behavior in Particle-Dispersed Materials with Finite Element Method

B.-N. Kim ...................................................................................................611

Statistical Model of Primary Recrystallization and Grain Growth: Example of Application to Stainless Steels

G. Abbruzzese, A. Di Schino and I. Salvatori ............................................617

A Hybrid Model for Mesoscopic Simulation of Recrystallization

A. D. Rollett and D. Raabe (Invited paper) ..............................................625

Mesoscale Modeling of Microstructure Evolution during Recrystallization of FCC Polycrystals

B. Radhakrishnan, G. Sarma and T. Zacharia ..........................................633

A Coupled Monte Carlo and N-Site Self-Consistent Approach to Model Static Recrystallization

D. E. Solas, C. N. Tomé, O. Engler and H. R. Wenk .................................639

Driving Forces for Recrystallization - a Molecular Dynamics Approach

N. Sandberg and G. Grimvall ....................................................................645

Modeling the Steady State Regime of Discontinuous Dynamic Recrystallization

F. Montheillet (Invited paper) ...................................................................651

Modeling the New Grain Development under Dynamic Recrystallization

W. Gao, T. Sakai and H. Miura .................................................................659

Modeling Dynamic Recrystallization of Geologic Aggregates

C. N. Tomé and H-R. Wenk .......................................................................665

Continuous Annealing - Modeling the Kinetics of Recrystallization

D. Muljono, M. Ferry and D. P. Dunne ....................................................671



VII. Applications to Processing - Steels

An Analysis of Dynamic Recrystallization of C-Mn Steels from the Standpoint of Dynamic Materials Modeling

E. S. Puchi Cabrera, M. H. Staia and G. Castro Fariñas .........................679

γ→α Transformation during Hot Deformation of Mn and Ni Steels and Its Relation to Dynamic Recrystallization

H. Yada, T. Senuma and H. Yamagata ......................................................685

Modeling of Developing Inhomogeneities in the Ferrite Microstructure and Resulting Mechanical Properties Induced by Deformation in the Two-Phase Region

J. Majta, A. K. Zurek and M. Pietrzyk ......................................................691

The Static Recrystallization Behavior of Coarse Grain Sized Microalloyed Austenite

A. I. Fernández, P. Uranga, B. López, J. M. Rodriguez-Ibabe and M. Fuentes ..........................................................................................697

Kinetics of Interpass Recrystallization during Continuous Cooling

N. Radovic and D. Drobnjak ....................................................................703

Effect of the Strain Reversal on the Recrystallization of a Microalloyed Steel

R. Bartolome, I. Gutiérrez and M. Fuentes ...............................................709

Simulation of the Controlled Rolling and Accelerated Cooling of Bainitic Steel through Torsion Testing

A. B. Cota, R. Barbosa and D. B. Santos ...................................................715

Recrystallization of Ti-Microalloyed Steels under Constant and Varying Deformation Conditions

L. P. Karjalainen, D. Porter and P. Peura ...............................................721

Investigation of the Recrystallization Process of Two Kinds of Stainless Steel

Z. Y. Niu and C. C. Zhou ...........................................................................727

Recrystallization Kinetics at Lower Temperatures than SRCT in Microalloyed Steels

S. F. Medina and A. Quispe .......................................................................733

Integrated Microstructural Simulation for Multistep Forming Processes

R. Luce, M. Wolske, R. Kopp, V. Marx, F. Roters and G. Gottstein .........739

Texture Change during the Late Stages of Recrystallization of a Cold Rolled and Annealed Ultra Low Carbon Steel

L. Kestens, N. Yoshinaga, D. Vanderschueren and B. C. De Cooman ......745

Recrystallization Textures in BCC Steels Deformed along Different Strain Paths

Y. B. Park, L. Kestens and J. J. Jonas .......................................................751

Influence of Copper on Recrystallization of Ti-IF Sheet Steels

S. Diligent-Berveiller, E. Gautier, T. Iung, H. Réglé and S. Chabanet .....757

Effect of C, Ti, Nb on Recrystallization Behavior after Hot Deformation in 16%Cr Ferritic Stainless Steel

H. Fujimura and S. Tsuge ..........................................................................763

A Mathematical Model to Predict Austenite Grain Size in Ti-Bearing Microalloyed Steels

P. A. Manohar and T. Chandra .................................................................769

Orientation Distribution of Recrystallized Grains in Type 430 Stainless Steels

T. Yokota, S. Satoh and M. Brochu ............................................................775

Continuous Recrystallization Characteristics in Metal Systems

S. Saimoto, H. Jin and B. J. Diak ..............................................................781



VIII. Applications to Processing - Nonferrous Alloys

Mechanisms of Grain Structure Development during Heat Treatment of a Fine-Grain Ni-Based Alloy

O. A. Kaibyshev, V. A. Valitov, B. P. Bewlay and M. F. X. Gigliotti (Invited paper) .......................................................789

Modeling Recrystallization after Different Modes of Deformation

T. Pettersen, H. E. Vatne and E. Nes ........................................................797

Deformation and Recrystallization Behaviors during Hot Rolling of 5182 Alloy

B. Ren and W. A. P. Cassada .....................................................................803

Recrystallization in Strip-Cast Aluminum Foil Alloys

H-E. Ekstr(m, J. Hagstr(m and B. Hutchinson .........................................809

Recrystallization of Cold Rolled Commercial Twin-Roll Cast Aluminum Alloys under Non-Isothermal Conditions

E. S. Puchi Cabrera, C. Villalobos, A. Carrillo, F. Di Simone and P. Rodriguez .......................................................................................815

Recrystallization Behavior of Twin Roll Cast Commercial Aluminum-1%Manganese Alloy after Cold Rolling

A. Olguin, P. Rodriguez and E. S. Puchi Cabrera .....................................821

Processing of a Fine-Grained Mg-4Y-3Re Alloy Processed by Thermomechanical Treatment

T. Mohri, M. Kubo, M. Mabuchi, N. Saito and M. Nakamura ..................827

Grain Refinement in Mg-Li-Zn Alloys by Thermomechanical Treatment

A. Yamamoto, Y. Kouta and H. Tsubakino ................................................833

The Influence of Ingot Homogenization on the Microstructure of 3003 Alloy Extrusion

T. Minoda and H. Yoshida .........................................................................839

The Evolution of Recrystallization Textures of Cross Rolled Copper Sheets

S.-H. Hong, Y.-S. Lee, N.-J. Park and D. N. Lee .......................................845

Recrystallization and Growth of Pure Cu Damascene Structures

D. P. Field and M. M. Nowell ....................................................................851

Relation Between Deformed Microstructure and New Grains Formed during Annealing of (-Brass

A. L. Pinto, J. C. Paredes, M. P. Butr_n-Guill_n and C. S. da Costa Viana ..........................................................................857

Deformation and Annealing Textures of Silver Wire

H.-J. Shin, H.-T. Jeong and D. N. Lee .......................................................863

Dynamic Globularization of Lamellar Structures in a Near Gamma Titanium Aluminide Alloy

V. Seetharaman, R. L. Goetz and S. L. Semiatin .......................................869

Orientation Control of Lamellae in a TiAl Alloy Produced by an Interdiffusion Method

T. Suzuki and Y. Tomota ............................................................................875

Mechanism of Dynamic Recrystallization of Nonstoichiometric Titanium Carbide

N. G. Zaripov, O. A. Kaibyshev and L. V. Petrova ...................................881

Grain Structure and Texture of Chemical-Vapor-Deposited TiN and TiN/AlN Films

N. Yoshikawa, A. Kikuchi and S. Taniguchi ..............................................887

Recovery/Recrystallization of Iron Aluminide (FeAl) Intermetallics Deformed by Unconventional Methods of Cold-Work

J. Bystrzycki and R. A. Varin .....................................................................893

Microstructure and Texture of YBa2Cu3O7-x Ceramics Produced by Intensive Plastic Deformation

M. F. Imayev, D. B. Kabirova, A. N. Korshunova, A. S. Zagitov, S. N. Val'kovsky and O. A. Kaibyshev .......................................................899



Late Arrivals

Structural Inhomogeneity of Plain Carbon Steel during Equal Channel Angular Pressing at Low Temperature

S. V. Dobatkin, R. Z. Valiev, N. A. Krasilnikov and V. N. Konenkova .....907

Recrystallization of Steels with Submicrocrystalline Structure

S. V. Dobatkin, R. Z. Valiev, L. M. Kaputkina, N. A. Krasilnikov, O. V. Sukhostavskaya and V. S. Komlev ...................................................913

Abnormal Texture Development in Cold Rolled Ni76Al24(B) during Recrystallization

S. Ghosh Chowdhury and R. K. Ray .........................................................919

Statistical Valuation of the Grain Size Development during the Hot Working of a Wrought Steel

Y. Meunier and L. Castex ...................................................................A-1



Author Index.

................................................................................925