INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
ON
ULTRA-HIGH PURITY BASE METALS

PROCEEDINGS of UHPM-99

May 31 - June 4, 1999
Sendai, Japan



Edited by

Kenji Abiko
Seiichi Takaki

Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan




Proceedings of the sixth International Conference on Ultra High Purity Base Metals (UHPM-99) held in Sendai, Japan, May 31-June 4,1999



Copyright © 2000, The Japan Institute of Metals
All right reserved
Published by The Japan Institute of Metals
Aramaki Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-0845, Japan
Tel: +81-22-223-3685, Fax: +81-22-223-6312





Contents

Preface

Ultra-Purification of Metals at CECM: Chromium-Titanium-Iron

Jean Bigot............................................................................................1

Ultra-Purification of Electrolytic Iron by Cold-Crucible Induction Melting and Induction-Heating Floating-Zone Melting in Ultra-High Vacuum

Seiichi Takaki and Kenji Abiko............................................................................................7

Preparation of Ultra High Purity Niobium

Alfred Koethe and Jens Ingolf Moench............................................................................................12

High Purity Niobium for Neutron Activation Detectors

Jens Ingolf Moench, Ingrid Stephan and Alfred Koethe............................................................................................22

High Purity Metal Production Using Dry Refining Processes

Poong Kim, Yasuo Mihara, Eiichi Ozawa, Yoshiharu Nozawa and Chikara Hayashi............................................................................................26

Upgrading of Copper Scrap by Evaporation Process

Takashi Yoshida, Tetsuya Nagasaka and Mitsutaka Hino............................................................................................33

Mechanisms and Modeling of Liquid Steel Decarburization below 10 ppm Carbon

Hubert Saint-Raymond, D. Huin and F. Stouvenot............................................................................................38

Interest and Limitations of High Purity Base Metals and Alloys as Model Materials for Applied Research

Jean Le Coze............................................................................................43

Special Lecture

Why Do We Study Ultra-High Purity Base Metals?

Kenji Abiko............................................................................................52

Fatigue Hardening and Self-Organization in Metals

Alfred Seeger............................................................................................57

Automotive Materials and Processing Technology today and for the Future --The Impact and Influence of UHPM on Automotive Materials--

Kiyoshi Funatani............................................................................................58

Notes on the History of Iron and Steel Making and Processing in Finland

Antti S. Korhonen............................................................................................65

Purification of Iron and Steels a Continuous Effort from 2000 BC to AD 2000

Jean Le Coze............................................................................................70

Our Planet and Metal

Yuichi Takayanagi............................................................................................84


Determination of Trace Amount of Gaseous Elements in Iron and Steel

Hisao Yasuhara, Makoto Shimura, Keiichi Yoshioka and Kenji Abiko............................................................................................85

Determination of Trace Amounts of Sulfur in High-Purity Iron by Infrared Absorption after Combustion: Removal of Sulfur Blank

Kunio Takada, Tetsuya Ashino, Yukitoshi Morimoto, Hisao Yasuhara, Mayuko Kurosaki and Kenji Abiko...............................................89

Determination of Trace Amounts of Carbon in High-Purity Iron by Infrared Absorption after Combustion: Pretreatment of Reaction Accelerator and Ceramic Crucible

Tetsuya Ashino, Kunio Takada, Yukitoshi Morimoto, Hisao Yasuhara, Mayuko Kurosaki and Kenji Abiko........................................................................93

Spectrophotometric Determination of Trace Amounts of Boron in High-Purity Iron and Ferroalloy after Chemical Separation

Ikuo Takahashi, Mikio Ishikuro, Kunio Takada, Kenji Abiko and Kouzou Tsunoyama............................................................................................99

Neutron Activation Analysis of High-Purity Iron in Comparison with Chemical Analysis

Atsushi Kinomura, Seiichi Takaki, Yukihiro Nakano, Yoshihiko Hayashi, Yuji Horino and Kenji Abiko ..........................................103

Reference Materials for Analysis of C in High Purity Iron

Seiyu Ogino, Masanobu Harada, Kouzou Tsunoyama and Yukitosi Morimoto............................................................................................109

Formation of Ultra High Pure Metal Thin Films by Means of a Dry Process

Yuji Horino, Akiyoshi Chayahara, Atsushi Kinomura, Nobuteru Tsubouchi, Claire Heck and Kenji Abiko.....................................112

Formation of High Purity Films by Negative Ion Beam Sputtering Using an Ultra-high Vacuum Self-Sputtering Method

Akiyoshi Chayahara, Atsushi Kinomura, Nobuteru Tsubouchi, Claire Heck and Yuji Horino............................................................................................115

Silicon Carbide Film Growth Using Dual Isotopical 28Si and 12C+ Ion Species

Nobuteru Tsubouchi, Akiyoshi Chayahara, Atsushi Kinomura, Claire Heck and Yuji Horino....................................................118

Metallic Alloy Coatings Using Coaxial Vacuum Arc Deposition

Sung-Yong Chun, Akiyoshi Chayahara and Yuji Horino............................................................................................121

Ultrapure Materials for Ultramicro Devices

Toshiyuki Yamada............................................................................................124


Role of Tungsten in the Mechanical Properties of a High-Purity Fe-50mass%Cr Alloy at 293-773 K

Seiichi Isozaki and Kenji Abiko............................................................................................127

Effects of Strain Rate and Carbon on the Stress-Strain Curves of a High-Purity Fe-50Cr Alloy at 773 K

Kenji Kako, Seiichi Takaki and Kenji Abiko............................................................................................130

In situ Transmission Electron Microscopy of Carbide Precipitation in Fe-50%Cr Alloys at Elevated Temperatures

Joji Ohta, Kenji Kako, Masami Mayuzumi, Hideo Kusanagi and Kenji Abiko................................................................132

Role of Carbon and Nitrogen on the Transformation of the σ Phase in Highly Purified Fe-50 mass%Cr Alloys

Koji Yano and Kenji Abiko............................................................................................138

Prevention of σ Phase and Improvement of Anti-Hot Corrosion Properties of High-Chromium-Nickel Cast Steel by Reduction of Silicon and Manganese

Toshimitsu Tetsui, M. Shinohara, T. Shibata and K. Kimura............................................................................................146

Mechanical Properties of a High-Purity 60 mass%Cr-Fe Alloy

Gaku Kanou, Nobuyuki Harima, Seiichi Takaki and Kenji Abiko............................................................................................147


Self-Diffusion in High Purity Fe-50 mass%Cr Alloy

Motohide Sugihara, Yoshihiro Yamazaki, Seiichi Takaki, Kenji Abiko and Yoshiaki Iijima............................................153

Diffusion in High Purity Metals

Yoshiaki Iijima............................................................................................157

Mechanical Properties of a High-Purity Fe-9Cr-2W-0.1C Model Alloy for Low-Activation Ferritic Steels for Fusion Reactors

Takuya Nagasaka, Hiroo Yoshida, Ken-ichi Fukumoto, Takuya Yamamoto and Hideki Matsui..................................163

Effects of Neutron Irradiation on Tensile Properties in High-Purity Fe-(9-50)Cr and Fe-50Cr-xW Alloys

Eiichi Wakai, Akimichi Hishinuma, Yukio Miwa, Asao Ouchi, Seiichi Isozaki, Seiichi Takaki and Kenji Abiko.................................171

High-Purity Chromium Base Alloys for Fusion Application

Akimichi Hishinuma, Seiichi Takaki and Kenji Abiko....................................................176


Formation of Giant Columnar Grains in High-Purity Iron by Hot-Rolling

Kenji Abiko, Seiichi Takaki, Takeshi Yokota and Susumu Satoh.................................................180

Influence of Purity and Forging Temperature on the Microstructure of High-Purity Iron

Toshifumi Ogawa, Nobuyuki Harima, Seiichi Takaki and Kenji Abiko..................................................187

A Study of the Recrystallization Mechanisms in Doped Ultra-High Purity Iron

Laurent Lesne, H. R´egl´e and J. H. Driver..........................................................................194

The Effect of Purity on Dynamic Recrystallization in Austenitic Stainless Steels

Laurent Gavard, Frank Montheillet and Jean Le Coze........................................................198

Modelling the Transition from Discontinuous to Continuous Dynamic Recrystallization with Decreasing Purity in Aluminium

Corinne Chovet, Sophie Gourdet and Frank Montheillet...........................................201


Effects of Purity on Corrosion Behavior of Iron in Acid Solution

Takashi Kumei, Toshirou Nagoya, Wakahiro Harada, Seiichi Takaki and Kenji Abiko......................................................................205

Electrochemical Characteristics of Irons of Different Purity in Sulphuric Acid

Toshirou Nagoya, Wakahiro Harada, K. Shirayama, Takashi Kumei, Seiichi Takaki and Kenji Abiko.......................................................................208

Corrosion of Ultra-High Purity Aluminum in Hydrochloric Acid

Kikuo Matsusaka, Hiroto Osono and Takao Kino...........................................213

The use of UHP Ni and Ni Base Single Crystals to Study the Stress Corrosion Cracking Mechanisms of Alloy 600 in PWR Environment

T. Magnin, N. Renaudot and F. Foct............................................................................................220


The Flow-Stress Asymmetry of Ultra-Pure Molybdenum Single Crystals

Alfred Seeger and L. Hollang............................................................................................229

Comparison of Flow-Stress Measurements on High-Purity Tungsten Single Crystals with the Kink-Pair Theory

Dieter Brunner............................................................................................240

Measurement of the Zener Relaxation in High-Purity FeCr Single Crystals

Michael Hirscher, U. Brossmann and R. Henes............................................................................................249

Impurity Effects in Chromium and Titanium

Clyde L. Briant............................................................................................254


In-situ Observation of Transformation Behavior in High-Purity Fe-Ni Alloys

Takeshi Hidaka and Kenji Abiko............................................................................................259

High-Temperature Mechanical Properties of a High-Purity Cr-Ni Alloy

Minoru Asahina, Nobuyuki Harima, Seiichi Takaki and Kenji Abiko..................................................................265

Purification of Ti-Al Alloys by Induction-Heating Floating-Zone Melting and Cold-Crucible Melting in Ultra-High Vacuum

Tadahito Nakajima, Yukitoshi Morimoto, Seiichi Takaki and Kenji Abiko...................................................................271

Influence of Boron on the Mechanical Properties of B2-ordered FeAl Alloys

Anna Fraczkiewicz............................................................................................277

Effect of Boron on Grain Boundary Fracture of Ni3Al

E. P. George and David P. Pope............................................................................................281


Workshop: Round Robin on Fe 4N analysis

Presentation of the Results on C, S, O and N

Jean Le Coze and Kunio Takada............................................................................................282

Analytical Procedure

Kunio Takada, Tetsuya Ashino, Yukitoshi Morimoto, Hisao Yasuhara, Y. Murai and Kenji Abiko.........................................................285


AUTHOR INDEX

............................................................................................289